• Astrology in Ancient Persia
  • Feasting and banquets
  • Mirrors in Persia

Perfumery in Persia

With the rise of Adolf Hitler in 1933, the Shah saw a possible ally.

The extra payments were given outfor one month only.

 There’s a popular narrative about women in Iran and it goes something like this:
Although a lot of legal changes were made during the Pahlavi era, as we will see they actually brought about little change to Iran, specifically women.

Her workforce appearsat several locations.

Ataturk also enacted similar unveiling laws in Turkey, but the difference between the two was while the Shah used coercion and force to unveil women, Ataturk used a method of encouragement, requesting that women remove their chadur, not requiring it.[7]

A large segment of professional middle class women hailed the abolishment of the chadur as freedom from oppression.


She owned property and had her own private seal.

The only difference was that marriages now had to be registered, the minimum marriage age for women was set at 15, and women were allowed to include the right to divorce in their marriage contracts.

Women's Roles Under the Pahlavi Regime
With Reza Shah's introduction of both modern civil and penal codes in 1928 and with his replacement of religious judges and lawyers with secularly educated ones, the influence of shari'a (Islamic law) and the ulama in the courts was drastically reduced.

Many of the clerics were in fact uneducated, or semi-educated.

The nationalists felt humiliated by Iran's continued use of foreign advisors, and the ulama emphasized the moral decay Iran was undergoing, which later became the focal point of the Islamic revolution.[6] In 1979 the Shah decided to leave Iran on an "extended vacation".

Shariati was a more liberal in his ideas than Khomeini.

Several women's magazines invited debate on the topic, including Women's World in 1936, receiving an overwhelming response of both pro and con arguments about the unveiling.

Shariati died very soon thereafter in England.

It is interesting to note that a marriage without a contracthad no legal standing under the Hammurabi Law Code but was perfectly legalunder Hebrew law.

Motahari was one of the other great influences of this time.

The chadur strengthens the institute of marriage, for it encourages youth to marry young and fulfill their sexual desires by increasing sexual tension.

His writings were decidedly more conservative than Shariati's.

Generally the response was supportive of the Shah's unveiling policy.[8] It's important to remember, though, that the majority of women writing letters to the editors were generally well-educated, or at the very least, literate.

The chadur also increases women's value and respect.

Protection for women lay in the growing popularity of the “” or marriage contract. While this documentwas usually written in an artistic manner and handed to the bride as part ofthe wedding ceremony, most of its significance pertained to her property rightsin case of divorce or the death of the husband. Such rights were oftenmore than enough to discourage divorce except in the most disastrous ofmarriages.