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The is a bibliography on violence and aggression in sport with particular reference to hockey, soccer and football.

Athletes/Athletics and Violence in Sport - what-when-how

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How does violence within sport reflect upon the attitudes of wider society
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In , the author discusses the rise of violence in sports and attempts to define the concept of "aggression". He distinguishes between agression and assertiveness and examines the role of the coach in modifying players' behaviour. A list of recommendations is given for coaches and administrators to use to reduce aggression. Originally published in OPHEA Journal, Fall 1999.

Neil Patel is the co-founder of Crazy Egg, Hello Bar and KISSmetrics

Free term papers & essays - The Influence of Violence in Sports, Social Issues
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proposes a definition of violence and discusses how to determine what steps need to be taken to create appropriate legislation to prevent violence in sport.


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Sport violence is an upcoming concern not only for the players but the fans watching the events
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The is a bibliography of materials on how professional sports and the Olympics are covered in newspapers, magazines and on television. Issues such as the differences between the portrayal of male and female athletes, televised sport violence, the commercialization of sporting events, the emotional responses of fans to sports broadcasting, and the ethics of sports journalism are included.

Not very violent on the field (in comparison to hockey and rugby) but off the field, there is so much violence surrounding the sport.
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presents recommendations for addressing violence and aggression in sports by focusing on actions that can be taken by communities to resurrect a fun and stress-free environment for children's sports.


The second explanation focuses more specifically on the role of masculinity both in athletic participation and in aggression. Sports have been identified as an arena in which boys are socialized into and can demonstrate stereotypical traits associated with masculinity, such as dominance, achievement, toughness, rejection of anything perceived to be feminine, and suppression of emotion. Participating in all-male high-contact sports can serve both to expose boys and men to hypermasculine attitudes and beliefs and to provide them with an acceptable outlet to display traditional masculinity. Although certainly not universal, athletes report that coaching and training may be infused with “masculine” injunctions to “tough it out,” as well as sexist or homophobic insults comparing failure to being feminine or gay. Given the longstanding connection between adherence to traditional norms of masculinity and the risk for interpersonal violence, athletic teams that particularly reinforce narrow conceptions of masculinity, and that couple notions of masculinity with violence, may exacerbate risk for aggression among their male players.