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J.S. Mill, ‘Utilitarianism’ in Utilitarianism and Other Essays, ed. Alan Ryan (London: Penguin Classics, 1987) p. 281.

Precursors to the Classical Approach

Utilitarianism (book) - Wikipedia

A generation later, utilitarianism found its most effective exponent in John Stuart Mill
Given Mill's ambivalence between direct and indirect utilitarianism,it is natural to inquire whether one view is more plausible than theother. Some of Mill's claims in Chapter V suggest a possible advantagethat sanction utilitarianism might have. In articulating sanctionutilitarianism, Mill claims that it allows him to distinguish duty andexpediency and claim that not all inexpedient acts are wrong;inexpedient acts are only wrong when it is good or optimal to sanctionthem. This suggests that sanction utilitarianism may be preferable toact utilitarianism, because it has a more plausible account of therelation among different deontic categories.

Jeremy Bentham [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]

Feb 24, 2009 · UTILITARIANISM. A very short exposition of Utilitarianism. Michael Jhon M. Tamayao. UTILITARIANISM (JEREMY BENTHAM AND JOHN STUART MILL) How can we know whether an act is good or bad?
As documented in his Autobiography (1873), Mill was groomedfrom birth by his father to become the ultimate Victorian intellectualand utilitarian reformer. As part of this apprenticeship, Mill wasexposed to an extremely demanding education, shaped by utilitarianprinciples. While Mill followed the strict intellectual regimen laiddown by his father for many years, he suffered a profound intellectualand emotional crisis in the period 1826–1830. Mill's recovery wasassisted by friendships he formed with Thomas Carlyle and SamuelColeridge, who introduced him to ideas and texts from the Romantic andConservative traditions. As Mill emerged from his depression, he becamemore concerned with the development of well-rounded individuals andwith the role of feeling, culture, and creativity in the happiness ofindividuals (see Capaldi 2004).

 

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) - Friesian School

An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Jeremy Bentham 1781. Contents Preface I: Of The Principle of Utility II: Of Principles Adverse to that of Utility
Classical utilitarians argue that an act is morally right if it maximises the good (pleasure or happiness, depending) and minimises the pain. For an individual this means making a calculation of likely consequences and choosing the best outcome. For society it means aggregating all members of society and making a policy choice which maximises the happiness of the largest number of people. As Mill put it, defending himself against the charge that utilitarianism was a selfish philosophy, it was concerned “not with the agent’s own happiness,but with the greatest happiness altogether” (p142).

Classical utilitarians and founders of the tradition include Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill Utility is only thing that is ..
No wonder Macintyre calls Mill “an inconsistent utilitarian” and Vardy, in a lecture in 2006, suggested that the question whether Mill was an act or rule utilitarian was far from clear. On the following page I summarise the major differences between Bentham and Mill. because of his emphasis on rules which promote social happiness, Mill is described as a weak Rule Utilitarian. We might also describe him as amultilevel utilitarian:


Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) Bentham was a British political reformer

But it was common among the Philosophical Radicals to formulateutilitarianism, as the Proportionality Doctrine does, in terms of thefelicific tendencies of individual actions. For instance, Bentham doesthis early in his Introduction to the Principles of Morals andLegislation.

Dr. Charles Kay » Utilitarianism

Urmson also defends a rule utilitarian interpretation as a readingof Mill's claims about the importance of secondary principles in ourmoral reasoning. Mill defends the utilitarian's appeal to familiarmoral precepts about such things as fidelity, veracity, and fair playas secondary principles that should regulate much moral reasoning(U II 24–25). He seems to believe that secondaryprinciples often satisfy two conditions.

UTILITARIANISM | Law, Politics, and Philosophy

Cover has some light wear , binding tight text clean with some highlighting An Introduction to the Principals of Morals and Legislation Jeremy Bentham Utilitarianism and on Liberty.

Learning Outcomes | Miami Dade College

When these two conditions are met, Mill believes, agents should forthe most part follow these principles automatically and withoutrecourse to the utilitarian first principle. However, they shouldperiodically step back and review, as best they can, whether theprinciple continues to satisfy conditions (1) and (2). Also, theyshould set aside these secondary principles and make direct appeal tothe principle of utility in unusual cases in which it is especiallyclear that the effects of adhering to the principle would besubstantially suboptimal and in cases in which secondary principles,each of which has a utilitarian justification, conflict (II 19,24–25).