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John Marshall Harlan (June 1, 1833 – October 14, 1911) was an American lawyer and politician from Kentucky who served as an associate justice on the U.S. Supreme Court

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John Marshall Harlan II (1899-1971) was a highly influential justice of the U.S
Harlan's tenure on the circuit court of appeals was unremarkable and brief. When Justice died in October 1954, Eisenhower appointed Harlan to the U.S. Supreme Court. Harlan was confirmed by the U.S. Senate in 1955.

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John Marshall Harlan (May 20, 1899 ..
When Harlan was a Circuit Judge in 1955,he authorized the decision upholding conviction of leaders of the (including ) underthe . Theruling was based on the previous Supreme Court's decisions, bywhich the Court of Appeals was bound. Later, when he was a theSupreme Court justice, Harlan, however, wrote an opinionoverturning the conviction of communist party activists asunconstitutional in the case known as .Another such case was .


John Marshall Harlan served as an associate justice of the U.S

Did John Marshall Harlan II Misuse the Word …
Justice Harlan rejected the theory that the Constitutionenshrined the so-called "" principle, or theprinciple that legislative districts must be roughly equal inpopulation.In this regard, he shared the views of Justice Felix Frankfurter,who in admonished the courts to stay out of the "political thicket" of . The Supreme Court,however, disagreed with Harlan in a series of rulings during the1960s. The first case in this line of rulings was .The Court ruled that the courts had over issues and therefore wereentitled to review the validity of district boundaries. Harlan,however, dissented, on the grounds that the plaintiffs failed todemonstrate that malapportionment violated their individualrights.

Did John Marshall Harlan II Misuse the Word 'Suppletive'
Harlan is often characterized as a member of the conservativewing of the . He advocated a limited role for the judiciary, remarkingthat the Supreme Court should not be considered "a general havenfor reform movements".In general, Harlan adhered more closely to , and was more reluctant to overturnlegislation, than many of his colleagues on the Court. He stronglydisagreed with the doctrine of , whichheld that the provisions of the applied to the state governments, not merely theFederal.At the same time, he advocated a broad of the 's , arguing that it protected a wide range ofrights not expressly mentioned in the .Harlan is sometimes called the "" of the WarrenCourt, and has been described as one of the most influentialSupreme Court justices in the twentieth century.Justice Harlan was gravely ill when he retired from the SupremeCourt on September 23, 1971.He died from spinal cancer three months later, on December 29,1971. After Harlan's retirement, appointed to replace him.

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Harlan was a student at and and then at . He continuedhis education at .Upon his return to the U.S. in 1923 Harlan worked in the law firmof Root, Clark, Buckner & Howland while studying at . Later he served as Assistant and as SpecialAssistant Attorney General of New York. In 1954 Harlan wasappointed to the , and a yearlater president nominated Harlan to the United States Supreme Court following thedeath of Justice .

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John Marshall Harlan was born on May 20, 1899 in , .He was the son of John Maynard Harlan, a Chicago lawyer andpolitician, and Elizabeth Flagg. He had three sisters.Historically, Harlan's family had been politically active. Hisforebear, George Harlan, served as one of governors of Delawareduring the seventeenth century; his great-grandfather, , was acongressman during the 1830s;his grandfather, also , was anassociate justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1877 to1911; and his uncle, , was attorney generalof andthen chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

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Harlan, a , maintained a New York Cityapartment, a summer home in and a fishingcamp in ,a lifestyle he described as "awfully tame and correct".The justice played golf, favored tweeds, and wore a gold watchwhich had belonged to the first Justice Harlan.In addition to wearing his grandfather's watch, when he joined theSupreme Court, he would use the same furniture with which hisgrandfather had furnished his chambers.

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On January 13, 1954, nominatedHarlan to the , to fill avacancy created by the death of Judge . He was confirmed by the on February 9, and took office on February10.Harlan knew this court well, as he had often appeared before it andwas friendly with many of the judges.However, his stay on the court only lasted for a year. On January10, 1955, President Eisenhower nominated Harlan to the UnitedStates Supreme Court following the death of Justice .On being nominated, the reticent Harlan called reporters into hischambers in New York, and stated, in full, "I am very deeplyhonored."Despite the brevity of his stay on the Second Circuit, Harlan wouldserve as the responsible for the Second Circuit throughout his Supreme Courtcapacity, and, in that capacity, would enjoyably attend theCircuit's annual conference, bringing his wife and catching up onthe latest gossip.