• Research proposal on impact of tv violence, ..
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The average American child will witness 200,000 violent acts on television by age 18

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28/03/2008 · The following is my first research paper at Berea College
Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C.-L.,
& Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal Relations Between Children’s Exposure to
TV Violence and Their Aggressive and Violent Behavior in Young Adulthood:
1977-1992. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 201-221.

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The second major problem with the TV Parental Guidelines was that they were not likelyto effectively warn parents about what kind of objectionable content (e.g., violence, sex, coarselanguage) television programs with certain ratings would contain. In other words, the TVParental Guidelines were not likely to be very informative because the specific ratings wouldprobably not be indicative of any particular kind of television material. These speculations arebased on the fact that the rating system that the TV Parental Guidelines were based on--theMPAA rating system--has been shown to be ineffective in clearly communicating what kind ofcontent coincides with particular movie ratings.


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Hence, the original TV Parental Guidelines were problematic for three primary reasons:they did not reflect the kind of television rating system that parents wanted, they were not likelyto (and, in the case of violent content, they did not) clearly communicate the kind of content thatprograms contain, and they were likely to attract children to problematic content rather than repelthem. Given these problems, it is likely that parents are still wondering what it is that they cando to protect their children from television they consider to be harmful.

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However, the revisions to the system did not eliminate the age-based component. Instead,content indicators were simply added to the age-based ratings to communicate why a certainprogram received the rating that it did. Thus, programs now receive ratings such as TV-PG-L,or TV-14-V, and TV-MA-S. And, depending on what age-based rating a program receives, aparent can determine the level of violence, sex, and language that it contains. For example, aprogram rated TV-PG-V indicates that the program has "moderate violence," a program ratedTV-14-V indicates that the program has "intense violence," and a program rated TV-MA-V suggests that the program has "graphic violence."

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The NAESP report on TV violence emphasizes setting a good example, planning schedules for other activities as well as TV viewing, and working with the child to develop sound judgment and other interests.

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In contrast to the effects observed with the MPAA ratings, we found that the contentindicators had no effect on children's interest in viewing the movie. In fact, younger childrentended to shy away from the movie when they believed it contained various levels of violence. Hence, it does not appear that every rating system will necessarily attract children to restricted orobjectionable content. However, it does seem that the age-based MPAA ratings entice childrento the content parents want to protect them from. By extension, we should expect that the TVParental Guidelines, because they are so similar to the MPAA ratings, will also attract children torestricted content.

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Fortunately, however, the TV Parental Guidelines were revised. Because of the intensecriticism that the system received, the industry (with the exception of NBC) agreed to modify theexisting system to include ratings that would indicate what kind of content appears in programs. Thus, the letters V, S, L, and D were added to indicate the presence of violence, sex, language,and suggestive dialogue, respectively. The letters "FV" (indicating "fantasy violence") were added to the children's ratings to indicate the presence of "more intense" violence in children's programs. The revised TV Parental Guidelines went into effect in October of 1997.

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For example, children can be taught to recognize stereotypes, distinguish fictional from factual portrayal, identify scenes portraying behavior and values that conflict with their own and their family's values, and think about and describe alternative, nonviolent means of resolving problems.(ll) What the research does not provide is much factual information on rating systems for TV programs, movies or other media.