• The Tragedy of the Commons - Garrett Hardin
  • The Tragedy of the Commons, by Garrett Hardin (1968)
  • The Tragedy of “The Tragedy of the Commons” - The …

Because continual growth is impossible in any finite domain,they all lead to the tragedy of the commons.

A General Statement of the Tragedy of the Commons

See the Tragedy of the Commons - Marginal …

Hardin, Garrett,
The second reason springs directly from biological facts. Tolive, any organism must have a source of energy (for example,food). This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenanceand work. For man maintenance of life requires about 1600kilocalories a day ("maintenance calories"). Anythingthat he does over and above merely staying alive will be definedas work, and is supported by "work calories" which hetakes in. Work calories are used not only for what we call workin common speech; they are also required for all forms ofenjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to playing musicand writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it isobvious what we must do: We must make the work calories perperson approach as close to zero as possible. No gourmet meals,no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art Ithink that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, thatmaximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal isimpossible.

Ten Real-Life Examples of the Tragedy of the Commons

I also think  are a Tragedy of the Commons. I’m not yet completely sure, though. Time will tell.
The class of "no technical solution problems" hasmembers. My thesis is that the "population problem," asconventionally conceived, is a member of this class. How it isconventionally conceived needs some comment. It is fair to saythat most people who anguish over the population problem aretrying to find a way to avoid the evils of overpopulation withoutrelinquishing any of the privileges they now enjoy. They thinkthat farming the seas or developing new strains of wheat willsolve the problem -- technologically. I try to show here that thesolution they seek cannot be found. The population problem cannotbe solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem ofwinning the game of tick-tack-toe.


Game Theory, Pt. 2: The Tragedy of the Commons – …

Hardin, Garrett. “The Tragedy of the Commons.” Science #13, Vol. 162 (1968): 1243-1248. Web. 24 November 2012.
I believe, however, that Hardin's essay not only requiresthe "repudiation" of certain ethical beliefs but italso requires the rejection of the whole paradigm on which theethical and political thinking of the Western world is based. Byshowing that factual evidence can refute systems of ethicalbelief, the tragedy of the commons repudiates the method which has long been used to justify ethical principles andobligations. By implication it repudiates the purely linguisticdistinction between value and fact, that is, it denies that valueclaims and factual claims belong to such distinctly differentdomains that they cannot interact. It also denies that humanrights are universal, and that specific moral laws and principlesmake unconditional demands on all mankind.

Reid, Herbert and Betsy Taylor. Recovering the Commons: Democracy, Peace, and Social Justice. Champaign: U of Illinois P, 2010. Print.
(3) that the administrative system, supported by the criterionof judgment and access to coercion, can and will protect thecommons from further desecration." [p. 55]

Chilean Fish Farms and the Tragedy of the Commons | …

"There is also an increasing recognition amongcontemporary social scientists that there is a subset ofproblems, such as population, atomic war, environmentalcorruption, and the recovery of a livable urban environment, forwhich there are no current political solutions. The thesis ofthis article is that the common area shared by these two subsetscontains most of the critical problems that threaten the veryexistence of contemporary man." [p. 53]

Paris and the Tragedy of the Commons | HuffPost

(1) that there exists, or can be developed, a 'criterion ofjudgment and system of weighting . . .' that will 'render theincommensurables . . . commensurable . . . ' in real life;

The Tragedy of the Commons by Garrett Hardin - The …

The only way we can preserve and nurture other and moreprecious freedoms is by relinquishing the freedom to breed, andthat very soon. "Freedom is the recognition ofnecessity" -- and it is the role of education to reveal toall the necessity of abandoning the freedom to breed. Only so,can we put an end to this aspect of the tragedy of the commons.

See the Tragedy of the Commons - Marginal REVOLUTION

The most important aspect of necessity that we must nowrecognize, is the necessity of abandoning the commons inbreeding. No technical solution can rescue us from the misery ofoverpopulation. Freedom to breed will bring ruin to all. At themoment, to avoid hard decisions many of us are tempted topropagandize for conscience and responsible parenthood. Thetemptation must be resisted, because an appeal to independentlyacting consciences selects for the disappearance of allconscience in the long run, and an increase in anxiety in theshort.