• Julius Caesar: Roman General
  • Bust of Julius Caesar
  • Head of Julius Caesar

His father and namesake, Gaius Julius Caesar, achieved the rank of praetor (see cursus honorum).

Bust Sculpture of Julius Caesar

A Roman Emperor? Julius Caesar - PBS

Sulla ordered him to divorce Cornelia in 82 BC, but Caesar refused and prudently left Rome to hide.
Historians differ as to what Caesar said upon crossing the Rubicon; the two competing lines are "The die is cast" and "Let the dice fly high!" (a line from the New Comedy poet Menander), the former in Latin (Alea iacta est) and the latter in Greek.

Julius Caesar founds the Roman colony of Corinth

To confirm the alliance, Pompey married Julia Caesaris, Caesar's only daughter.
At this point only three of all the Celtic tribes in Gaul still supported Rome. Caesar blockaded the town, which stood on a plateau bounded on three sides by rivers, with a series of ditches and earthworks (contravallation). To protect his army from attack by a relieving force, he constructed a further ring of fortifications outside the first (circumvallation). To save food, and also to summon help, Vercingetorix managed to get his cavalry out of the town by night, with instructions to raise the tribes. Both sides were now running out of supplies. The Gallic relieving force duly arrived and camped on the heights to the west of the town. It numbered, according to Caesar, 250,000 infantry alone, against Caesar’s seventy thousand. There were two battles, one by day and the other by night. Caesar, conspicuous in his red cloak, was forced to fight on two fronts. While the Gauls assailed the Roman outer line of defences at various points, Vercingetorix sallied out against the inner line. Caesar himself led the final coup de main, appearing with four cohorts and a troop of cavalry to reinforce an attack on the Gallic rear. There was slaughter and wholesale surrender, and Vercingetorix was sent to Rome in chains. He was made to march in Caesar’s quadruple triumph in 46 BC, after which he was strangled. (From Antony Kamm, Julius Caesar: a beginner’s guide, Hodder and Stoughton 2002)

 

Roman Empire: What was so great about Julius Caesar? - …

In 54 BC, Julia Caesaris died in childbirth, leaving both Pompey and Caesar heartbroken.


Roman battles fought by Caesar:

58 BC -
June - Battle of the Arar (Saone): Caesar engages and defeats the Helvetii
July - Battle of Bibracte: Caesar engages and defeats the Helvetii
57 BC -
Battle of the Axona (Aisne): Caesar engages and defeats the Belgae
Battle of the Sabis (Sambre) - Caesar defeats the Nervii.


Caesar's infantry and cavalry was first rate, and he made heavy use of formidable Roman artillery; additional factors which made him so effective in the field were his army's superlative engineering abilities and the legendary speed with which he maneuvered (Caesar's army sometimes marched as many as 40 Roman miles a day).


The Roman Empire under Julius Caeasar - PBS

Although he suffered occasional tactical defeats such as Gergovia during the Gallic War and Dyrrhachium during the Civil War, Caesar's tactical brilliance was highlighted by such feats as his circumvallation of Alesia during the Gallic War, the rout of Pompey's numerically superior forces at Pharsalus during the Civil War, and the complete destruction of Pharnaces's army at Zela.

Julius Caesar Biography - Biography


52 BC -
Battle of Alesia: Caesar lays siege to Alesia and is simultaneously lain under siege by the Gallic leader Vercingetorix; Caesar defeats Vercingetorix
48 BC -
July 10 - Battle of Dyrrhachium: Caesar lays siege to Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus at Dyrrhachium and withdraws before his forces can be decisively beaten
August 9 - Battle of Pharsalus: Caesar engages and defeats Pompey
47 BC -
February - Battle of the Nile: Caesar engages and defeats King Ptolemy XIII of Alexandria and Egypt
May - Battle of Zela: Caesar engages and defeats King Pharnaces II of Pontus
46 BC, February - Battle of Thapsus: defeats the Pompeian army of Metellus Scipio in North Africa.

The Roman Empire: in the First Century


These narratives, apparently simple and direct in style -- to the point that Caesar's Commentarii are commonly studied by first and second year Latin students -- , are in fact highly sophisticated advertisements for his political agenda, most particularly for the middle-brow readership of minor aristocrats in Rome, Italy, and the provinces.

Why was the first century so turbulent


45 BC March 17 - Battle of Munda: defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompeius

Caesar's name
Using the Latin alphabet as it existed in Caesar's day (i.e., without lower case letters, "J", or "U"), Caesar's name is properly rendered "GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR" (the form "CAIVS" is also attested and is interchangeable with the more common "GAIVS").