• Introduction
  • Renaissance - Wikipedia

Nauert, Charles G., Jr. Humanism and the Culture of Renaissance Europe. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Continuing Reformation | semper reformanda

Reformation Month | Continuing Reformation

The IDEA OF THE RENAISSANCE is complicated and full of problems of interpretation and definition
Scholarship since the late 20th century emphasizes Erasmus as a humanist, religious scholar, and sharp critic of his times and traces his broad influence. assesses Erasmus as a humanist translator and editor of the classics, while and show Erasmus battling conservative theologians and scholars in the midst of the Reformation. looks at Erasmus’s political views. studies the diffusion of Erasmus’s religious views in Italy.

Albrecht Dürer: Art, Life, and Times

Important study detailing the growth of humanist influence at the English court and the links between humanism and the English Reformation.
Theodore of Marw was appointed Bishop of Marwby Maraba in 540. He was a disciple of Sergius of Rashayn who isreckoned as a Monophysite (cf. and like his teacherwas a student of Aristotelian logic. In him and the first Abraham ofKashkar we have evidence of the humanist renaissance which was takingplace in Maraba's days, amongst Monophysites and others as well as inNestorian circles, but to which he was the chief agent in directing theNestorians. Theodore's brother Gabriel was Bishop of Mormuzd-Ardasher(Ahwaz), and has also left literary works, but those were entirelytheological, commentaries on scripture, and a treatise against theManichaeans and the astrologers.


Albrecht Dürer: The Genius with a Great Soul

Rummel, Erika. The Humanist-Scholastic Debate in the Renaissance and Reformation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.
The Sasanid revolution of A.D. 226 placed a newPersian dynasty on the throne which had been that of Parthia. Thisrevolution, like most such movements in oriental lands, had a religiousbearing. It not only set on the throne a legitimist claimant who wasaccepted as descended from the demi-gods of ancient times, but it ledto a drastic reformation of the religion founded by Zoroaster. Thefirst Sasanid monarch Ardashir began his reign with a general councilof Mazdean clergy which resolved the many sectarian difficultiesbetween the various sections into which the Persian community wasdivided, and standardized the worship and scriptural canon. In historyMazdeanism appears generally as a tolerant creed, save in dealing withdissenters from itself, such as Mani and Mazdek, but it seems to havepassed through a period of active propaganda, of which there are nodetails, in the course of which the religion of Zoroaster spread overthe eastern provinces of the kingdom, so that at the coming of IslamBactria, Sogdiana, and Ferghana were largely, but by no means entirely,Mazdean, with a strong Buddhist minority which proved rather a problemto the Muslim conquerors. Thus the Barmaks, heirs of the hereditaryBuddhist abbots of Nawa Bahar, possessors of great wealth chieflyderived from the offerings of generations of Buddhist pilgrims, arerepresented as being fire-worshippers until their conversion to Islam.

What influence did humanism have on the founder of the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther, and the development of the Protestant Reformation? offers a comprehensive answer. Although Luther scholars do not generally view the mature Luther as a humanist, they do see him using humanistic techniques; see . discusses how Protestant and Catholic controversialists used humanism for their own purposes. Philip Melanchthon (b. 1497–d. 1560) was the most humanistic of the major Protestant reformers; see for an English introduction. argues for a humanistic John Calvin.

Florence in the Early Renaissance - Smarthistory

The leading journal in the field, with articles and reviews in all disciplines involving the Renaissance. Because it covers all fields, only a small number deal with humanism. Published by the Renaissance Society of America.

History of Christianity - Wikipedia

Grendler, Paul F. “Georg Voigt: Historian of Humanism.” In Humanism and Creativity in the Renaissance: Essays in Honor of Ronald G. Witt. Edited by Christopher S. Celenza and Kenneth Gouwens, 295–325. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill, 2006.

Lecture 4: The Medieval Synthesis and the Discovery of …

Argues that Petrarch was the father of humanism and then surveys the themes and works of all major Italian humanists and themes of the 15th century, followed by brief discussions of the influence of Italian humanism on Germany, France, and England. First published in one volume in 1859, Voigt’s book has never been translated into English, except for a few well-chosen pages from the 1893 edition excerpted in The Renaissance Debate (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965), edited by Denys Hay; reprinted in 1976 (Huntington, NY: Robert E. Krieger), pp. 29–34.

Renaissance man turned his gaze backward in historical time

Online bibliography listing articles, essays, books, dissertation abstracts, encyclopedia entries, and reviews for the Middle Ages and Renaissance, from 400 to 1700, based at the University of Toronto. As of January 2017 it listed more than 1,400,000 entries, with new entries added daily. Includes links to other online Renaissance sources and is particularly useful for recent scholarship. Available through libraries or by individual subscription.