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Scharping, Thomas. Birth Control in China, 1949–2000: Population Policy and Demographic Development. London: Routledge, 2003.

China's one-child policy has 'inadvertenly' boosted equality

China scraps controversial one-child policy; couples can have two

The government estimates that 90 million couples will be eligible for the new two-child policy.
This led to unexpected challenges as food supply became scarce, and from 1959 to 1961, the Great Chinese Famine killed an estimated 15 to 30 million people. As a result, the government started to reverse its campaign. "In 1979, the government introduced the one-child policy, under which most couples are allowed to have only one child or else face the possibility of fines, sterilisations, and abortions."

One-Child Policy Is One Big Problem for China - Newsweek

14. Short SE, Fengying Z. Looking locally at China's one-child policy.  ;29:-
Labor in China is unlikely to be a meaningful source of growth for the economy for decades to come. Sometime in the next few years, those leaving the labor pool will exceed those entering it. By 2035, 20 percent of the population is expected to be over 65. Young people entering the workforce — who are almost invariably only children due to the one-child policy — are already complaining about the and have been dubbed by the Chinese media “the loneliest generation.”


Here’s why China’s one-child policy was a good thing - …

While the one-child policy seems to have “inadvertently” contributed to equality outcomes, according to a publication in the last year, it has no less transformed prospects for women in urban China, where as high as 90 per cent of households can be single-child families, in cities like Beijing and Shanghai.

Therefore, in 2002 it was announced that there would be no fundamental policy changes but that certain aspects of policy implementation would be relaxed. For example, couples are to be allowed choice in contraceptive methods as part of so-called client-centered family-planning services. These changes have now been introduced in 800 counties (out of a total of 3000), and more are planned. Furthermore, couples no longer need to obtain permission to have a first child, a move that spells the end of the very unpopular system of local birth quotas, which meant that couples were forced to delay pregnancy if the local quota was exceeded. These changes, together with declining fertility aspirations, have reduced (though not eliminated) the tensions associated with the government's efforts to control population growth and have allowed the government to adopt a cautious and gradual approach to relaxing the one-child policy.

The One-Child Policy In China: Everything You Need To …

As a single child born in China myself in the late 1980s, my own father, who back then was less than ecstatic at the news of a daughter, has no less strived to provide educational opportunities for me that beat what most boys of my age and background received – something that could easily have been shifted to a male sibling, if I'd have had one. Today, the narrative of every single child family in China is the same from parents to grandparents, irrespective of gender – how to provide the best for the child.

China's One-Child Policy and American Adoptees - Newsweek

However, the introduction of the one-child policy 30 odd years ago has effectively blunted much of this male-centric fancy in families where the first born was a daughter, conditioning grumpy fathers in the face of draconian state-laws to love their only child as if she were a son.

China’s One Child Policy | TO SPEAK OR NOT TO SPEAK

However, on Sunday, the that local officials should continue to implement existing family planning laws until the two-child policy was ratified by lawmakers in March.

Effects of the One Child Policy | Understanding Modern China

For the population at large, the government applied incentives and sanctions to encourage compliance with the policy's goals. "People were to be encouraged to have only one child through a package of financial and other incentives, such as preferential access to housing, schools, and health services. Discouragement of larger families included financial levies on each additional child and other sanctions which ranged from social pressure to curtailed career prospects for those in government jobs. Specific measures varied from province to province.”