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terrorism and political instability have a significant negative effects on the ..

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Most of what citizens know about politics comes from what they learn via the media
The results that weaned piglets were protected from bacterial endotoxins by placing piglets on a taurine-supplemented diet will provide theoretical basis for the application of taurine in piglets. Dietary taurine prevented weaned piglets from intestinal damage by lipopolysaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria. The beneficial effects of taurine were due to decreased stimulation of the immune response to lipopolysaccharide and an improvement in intestinal epithelial barrier function.

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The harmful effects of inbreeding on reproductive traits are well known to breeders. The results obtained in the present study showed that inbreeding had undesirable effects on some reproductive traits in Markhoz goats; however, these effects were not significant. It can be concluded that mating system policy in the studied Markhoz goat population have been appropriate.


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There is still much controversy concerning whether forage should be included in the calf diet during the pre-weaning period. The aim of this study was to determine the responses of calves to forage type and forage provision age. The results indicate that forage provision had no negative effect on calves, which justifies the supply of forage to young calves, even at an early age.

Argues for a three-fold classification of the tone of political advertising: attack, advocacy, and contrast. The chapter suggests that the word negative implies dirty politics, while an attack on a candidate, if it is fair, accurate and relevant to governing, can be useful for citizens.

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Negative campaigning is hardly a new phenomenon. It has almost certainly existed for as long as there have been political campaigns. Scholarly interest in negative campaigning rose in the 1990s, stemming, in large part, from concerns about its impact on citizens, such as whether it might mislead voters, dampen their desire to participate in politics or create a generation of cynics. Until about ten years ago, most studies of campaign negativity had relied on data from the United States, perhaps due to the sheer volume of negativity in the United States. But negativity is not just an American phenomenon. Studies of campaign negativity in Europe, Asia, and elsewhere have recently been published, and some studies that compare the strategic use of campaign negativity across national contexts have been produced. Nonetheless, how to measure negativity remains contested. Although many scholars now use a standard definition of negativity—any criticism of an opponent—there is disagreement about whether operationalizing negativity in this way makes sense. For one, there is much variation in the content of messages that criticize opponents. Some focus on personal characteristics, while others focus on policy; some focus on matters relevant to governing, while others do not; some appeal to anger, while others appeal to fear or sadness. Second, there is increasing evidence that citizen perceptions of what is a negative message do not necessarily match up with scholars’ definitions. One positive development in the study of negative campaigning is that scholars have started to move beyond the study of advertising (generally television) and have started to investigate the tone of other campaign messages as well, such as online videos, tweets, emails, and Facebook posts. Still, research comparing tone across campaign channels and platforms is in its infancy.

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As the number of studies on how media messages influence citizens’ opinions and behaviors has grown, scholars have compiled comprehensive research overviews. Some of these works, such as ; ; and , explore media effects with a focus on politics and democracy more generally. Others, such as and , situate political media effects relative to other types of effects, including effects on health opinions and aggression. and review empirical studies of media effects. Other literature focuses on the routines that determine the content of media messages. One classic example of this work is .

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Important book that provides the definition of negativity used by many scholars: “any criticism leveled by one candidate against another during a campaign.” This book also serves as a defense of negativity, pointing out that negative ads are more likely to contain backing for their claims and are more likely to discuss policy issues.