• Pare’s inventions
  • Pare's thesis proved to be correct.
  • 1590- Pare dies in Paris, France from unknown causes.

Since his dad was an artist, Paré's parents wanted him to be an artist too.

Others believe Pare died of natural causes.

of Johnston's translation of the works of Paré, 1st edition

After the cook digested it, Pare quickly gave the cook the Bezoars Stone.

by Christopher Dell
Gesner might have believed this creature to be a werewolf. Werewolf legends date back to Antiquity, but the legends varied. Herodotus apparently wrote about a Scythian tribe that turned wolfish en masse every few years, though he might not have believed the story himself. Unlike some monsters that were assumed capable of changing their shape at will, werewolves didn't necessarily have complete control over their appearance. In the Middle Ages, some Europeans thought werewolves might change between wolf and human through the use of ointments or potions. Contact with a werewolf could turn an otherwise vanilla human into one of the loathsome animals (werewolf cooties). If Gesner believed that werewolves switch back and forth between animal and human, perhaps this specimen was caught mid-switch — between a human, a wolf, and apparently a giant chicken.

Ambroise Pare biography, birth date, birth place and …

Pare̲'s Apologie, et traite̲ contenant les voyages faits en divers lieux, together with F.R.

by Joseph Nigg
After pointing out that a "monstrous Fish" appeared off the coast of England in 1532, Olaus Magnus wrote, "Now I shall revive the memory of a monstrous Hog that was found afterwards, Anno 1537, in the same German Ocean, and it was a Monster in every part of it. For it had a Hog's head, and a quarter of a Circle, like the Moon, in the hinder part of its head, four feet like a Dragon's, two eyes on both sides of his Loyns, and a third in his belly inkling toward his Navel; behind he had a Forked-Tail, like to other Fish commonly." Olaus Magnus then went on to compare the beast to heretics who, he believed, lived like swine. The naturalist had been born a Catholic, but his homeland of Sweden, like most of northern Europe, was Protestant by the time he produced his map so rich in sea monsters. Remaining a Catholic, Olaus was evetually named Archbishop of Uppsala, though he had hardly any fellow believers to oversee there; he and his brother had already moved to southern Europe. His Catholic disdain for Protestants was more than reciprocated, with Martin Luther and Philipp Melanchthon distributing pictures of a "pope-ass" and a "monk-calf." Besides claiming thousands of lives, Europe's religious divisions in the 16th and 17th centuries caused a renewed interest in monsters ( proliferated) with Christians of both flavors blaming each other for the weird new creatures.


Ambroise Pare is credited as Military surgeon, ,

Pare had never completely believed the stone could cure any poison so, he conducted an expirement to prove his theory.
Lithograph engraved by J.H. Bufford and Company
"Cryptozoology in the Medieval and Modern Worlds" by Peter Dendle in
This sea serpent depiction combined realistic details — the eye, teeth, forked tongue, scales, and color patterns — with fancy. How could a serpent coil on top of the water like that? But the background was equally interesting. This giant serpent slithered over the water in close proximity to ships and a densely populated coast. The apparent intent of this lithograph was to argue that sea serpents not only existed, but that they existed in busy shipping lanes.

Diogo Ribeiro
Ribeiro's world map
by Jerry Brotton
Two years after Columbus sailed to America, the Portuguese and the Spanish settled their differences over who could have what in the newly discovered lands by drawing a north-south line down the Atlantic. What lay west of the line, namely the New World, went to the Spanish. What lay east of the line (outside of Europe), including the coast of Africa and the Indian Ocean, went to the Portuguese. The line-drawing officials apparently didn't wonder whether the inhabitants of these newly acquired regions agreed. And once the Spanish and Portuguese divvied up the Atlantic, they started squabbling over the Moluccas on the other side of the world because with control of the Moluccas came control of the global spice trade. Attempts to clarify the dispute entailed Magellan's circumnavigation of the globe, in which Magellan and most of his sailors died. Other efforts to settle the fight over the Moluccas included mapmaking, and one of the most skilled cartographers in that effort was the mapmaker Diogo Ribeiro. Putting aside the placement of the Moluccas, Ribeiro's 1529 map abounded with winsome creatures. This image includes three scenes from that map. Some of the animals are recognizable, such as the elephant, antelope and some birds. Others are harder to identify. In the top scene, a griffin-like animal squares off with a nondescript quadruped. Ribeiro's map was far ahead of the Hereford in accuracy and realism, and yet the fauna of faraway lands still retained mythical qualities.

"Ambroise Pare" - Science Museum, London

Packard's essay on life and times of Ambroise Pare̲.
The frontpiece is a reproduction of the engraved title-page of Johnston's translation of the works of Pare̲, 1st edition.

Ambroise Pare - The Robinson Library


"Monk Seals in Post-Classical History" by William Johnson in
Cherub-faced seals didn't please Mediterranean fishermen, who considered the animals deformed quadrupeds if not monsters. Yet everybody realized that the seals apparently had enemies of their own, such as the fearsome Ziphius. Here a Ziphius, with a face looking like a cross between an owl's and a worried human's, endures a bite from a porcine sea monster while munching on a hapless seal. The Ziphius might have been based on a killer whale or great white shark.

Life and times of Ambroise Pare <1510-1590> with a …

Medieval manuscript
Digital image courtesy of the Getty's Open Content Program
Produced in Flanders, this gold-embellished illumination depicted inhabitants of far-off, mythical lands. The medieval illuminator apparently guessed that people who didn't know how to use fire stuck to a vegetarian diet. Even more obvious, the artist had never been within riding range of a crocodile.

Ambroise Pare - Science and Technology biography

Giovanni Francesco Camocio

by Chet Van Duzer
Centuries ahead of the Expressionist artist Edvard Munch, an illustrator placed a similarly terrified, screaming face in the Indian Ocean. Because many of the maps rich in sea monsters were prepared for rich armchair travelers — who could afford the extra fees for the clever illustrations — it might be a mistake to assume that this fin-framed face belonged to a creature that anybody truly believed to be real. But monster lore did survive well beyond the late 16th century.