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The Proclamation of 1763 separated colonial settlers from Indians after the French and Indian War to reduce ..

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French And Indian War | HistoryNet

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In spite of significant Native American aid to the British, the European treaty negotiations that concluded the war in 1783 had no native representatives. Although Ohio and Iroquois Indians had not surrendered nor suffered a final military defeat, the United States claimed that its victory over the British meant a victory over Indians as well. Not surprisingly, due to their lack of representation during treaty negotiations, Native Americans received very poor treatment in the diplomatic arrangements. The British retained their North American holdings north and west of the Great Lakes, but granted the new American republic all land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. In fact, this region was largely unsettled by whites and mostly inhabited by Native Americans. As a Wea Indian complained about the failed military alliance with the British, "In endeavoring to assist you it seems we have wrought our own ruin." Even groups like the , one of the Iroquois nations that allied with the Americans, were forced to give up with other native groups.

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How the Partition of India happened – and why its effects are still felt today
The whole skirmish lasted only 15 minutes. One Frenchman escaped and 21 were captured. Jumonville lay wounded and 12 others were dead. The Half King approached the wounded Jumonville and said, “Thou are not dead yet my father.” Then he raised his tomahawk and killed him. It was both a horrifying and symbolic act. To the Half King and his people Jumonville represented the French in the Ohio River Valley and his death clearly showed the Half King’s desire to have them leave. These were the first shots of what was to become the French and Indian War. Shortly after the incident, the British historian Horace Walpole, would note, “The volley fired by a young Virginian in the backwoods of America set the world on fire.”

 

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While the previous explorations of African American and white female experience suggest both the gains and limitations produced in the Revolutionary Era, from the perspective of almost all the American Revolution was an unmitigated disaster. At the start of the war Patriots worked hard to try and ensure Indian neutrality, for Indians could provide strategic military assistance that might decide the struggle. Gradually, however, it became clear to most native groups, that an independent America posed a far greater threat to their interests and way of life than a continued British presence that restrained American westward expansion.


The chief (known to Anglo-Americans as ) was the most important Iroquois leader in the Revolutionary Era. He convinced four of the six Iroquois nations to join him in an alliance with the British and was instrumental in leading combined Indian, British, and Loyalist forces on punishing raids in western New York and Pennsylvania in 1778 and 1779. These were countered by a devastating Patriot campaign into Iroquois country that was explicitly directed by General Washington to both engage warriors in battle and to destroy all Indian towns and crops so as to limit the military threat posed by the Indian-British alliance.


The West was now officially open and secure to Americans.

The Treaty of Payne's Landing, signed by a small number of Seminoles in May 1832, required Indians to give up their Florida lands within three years and move west. When the U.S. Army arrived in 1835 to enforce the treaty, the Indians were ready for war.

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The French and Indian War started as a struggle for who would control the land west of the Allegheny Mountains in the Ohio River Valley. As the conflict spread European powers began to fight in their colonies throughout the world. It became a war fought on four continents.

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In the 1750s, the area west of the Allegheny Mountains was a vast forest. American Indians primarily from three nations, the Seneca, the Lenape (LEN-ah-pee) or Delaware, and the Shawnee inhabited Ohio River Valley. There were about 3,000 to 4,000 American Indians living there. Their economy was based upon hunting, fishing and agriculture. With enough land they were self-sufficient. They hunted beaver and other animals for trade. A few French and British traders traveled through the area. The American Indians traded furs and food for metal products, cloth, firearms and other products. The American Indians were excellent warriors and scouts. During battles in the French and Indian War their presence often made the difference between winning and losing.

Proclamation of 1763 - October 7, 1763

It was not until May 1756, that Britain officially declared war on France and the two countries began fighting in Europe. French and British colonies in the West Indies, India, and Africa were also drawn into the conflict. In Europe the war became known as the Seven Years War.