• The era in U.S
  • Assignment #1 Chapter 15, page 549
  • Mastectomy

The overthrow of Reconstruction left to future generations the troublesome problem of racial justice.

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Expander Implant post mastectomy reconstruction

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Once expansion is completed and the patient is medically cleared for another operation (about one month after chemotherapy), the second stage of reconstruction is performed. This is an outpatient procedure that involves exchanging the expander for an implant, and creating a more refined breast shape. The initial tissue expander placement, and subsequent exchange for an implant, each take about one hour in the operating room.

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Once a patient has completed her exchange, she will immediately feel more comfortable than she did with the tissue expander. The degree of tightness and discomfort should continue to decrease once the implant has settled and healed. In two to three months, the next stage of surgery will be performed to reconstruct the nipple areola. If desired, additional contouring procedures, such as fat injections, can be performed to adjust breast shape at this third stage. In some patients, further contouring and shaping procedures may be needed. For patients with a unilateral breast reconstruction, it is very common to require an adjustment procedure on the opposite breast (such as an augmentation, reduction, or lift), in order to achieve better symmetry. For patients undergoing bilateral reconstruction, symmetry using implants is easier to achieve.


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Kids learn about the reconstruction of the South after the Civil War. Efforts made to admit the southern states back into the Union.
At the time of the initial post mastectomy reconstruction operation, when it is first positioned on the chest wall, the tissue expander is partially filled with saline. Within a few weeks after this surgery, once the patient has healed, expansion can be started as an office procedure. The process of expansion takes place at one, two or three week intervals over several months. The timing of expansion can be coordinated with chemotherapy treatments. The amount of fluid that is placed into the expander at the time of the initial surgery will also determine how many expansions are later required. Today, with the use of a dermal matrix (such as ), the surgeon can usually place a higher volume of saline during the initial surgery. This may decrease the number of expansions needed later. The patient will be well on her way to having an immediate breast shape after the first operation.

Together with your surgeon, you will decide which implant best suits your individual needs. There are two general categories for implants: saline-filled, and the new generation of silicone cohesive gel-filled implants. Saline implants have historically been more commonly used in breast reconstruction, and between 1992 and 2006 they were the only fully-approved devices in the United States. Silicone gel implants prior to 1992 were often well received by patients, but were sometimes associated with microscopic gel-bleed or leakage. This led to their removal from the marketplace in 1992. However, due to certain advantages over saline implants, product development continued worldwide. FDA studies in led to FDA approval of the latest generation of silicone implants in 2006. The advantages of gel implants are that they tend to be softer; with a feel that is more like natural breast tissue. Also, gel implants can have less rippling and visibility as compared to saline implants. Both types of implants come in numerous shapes, sizes, and profiles. There are smooth and textured designs (some surgeons use textured implants to reduce the risk of capsular contracture). Most importantly, the choice of implant style should be determined by the patient’s body shape.

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Post mastectomy reconstruction with a tissue expander and implant involves a staged approach. A tissue expander is a temporary device that is placed on the chest wall deep to the pectoralis major muscle. This may be done immediately following the mastectomy, or as a delayed procedure. The purpose of the expander is to create a soft pocket to contain the permanent implant. Tissue expanders are available in a variety of shapes and sizes.

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Just as the fate of slavery was central to the meaning of the Civil War, so the divisive politics of Reconstruction turned on the status the former slaves would assume in the reunited nation.

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Reconstruction remains relevant today because the issues central to it -- the role of the federal government in protecting citizens' rights, and the possibility of economic and racial justice -- are still unresolved.

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Reconstructive surgery is performed to treat structures of the body affected aesthetically or functionally by congenital defects, developmental abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors or disease. It is generally done to improve function and ability, but may also be performed to achieve a more typical appearance of the affected structure. Reconstructive surgery is generally covered by most health insurance policies, although coverage for specific procedures and levels of coverage may vary greatly.