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Coysh, A.W. Collecting Bookmarkers. New York: Drake, 1974.

Staff, Frank. The Valentine & Its Origin. New York: Praeger, 1969.

A. W. Coysh in his work Collecting Bookmarkers, a history of English bookmarks, states:
Pictorial sheet music covers were uncommon until the mid-nineteenth century when three things happened: popular music grew to attract a wider audience, largely through the proliferation of music halls; lithography was invented and perfected; and there was an upsurge in the appreciation of typography. By the time the Victorian Age was in full swing, the sheet music of the day contained skillfully produced and attractive illustrations. Today, it is possible to study and appreciate any time period in American history by looking at a piece of illustrated sheet music. Music is reflective of its era, and illustrations mirror the time they were created. Compare, for example, a piece of sheet music for a tune by Stephen Foster with another by Scott Joplin. And, contrast the illustration depicting Little Red Riding Hood for "Little Red Riding Hood Galop," ca. 1870, with the one used for "A Pretty Girl is Like a Melody" popularized by the Ziegfeld Follies in 1919.

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The Shakers--or the United Society of Believers--are a celibate, Christian society which has been living communally in America for some two hundred and twenty years. By the early nineteenth century they were living in eighteen relatively self-sufficient villages in New England, New York, Ohio, and Kentucky. Almost from the beginning, the Shakers developed industries to help support their communities; garden seeds in individual packages being the first of these. Soon the raising and processing of medicinal herbs became a major enterprise followed by the production of brooms and brushes, chairs and stools, dairy products, storage boxes, preserved foods, women's cloaks, and "fancy goods"--usually sewing items. Each of these industries required ephemera to support it--both in packaging and advertising. The seed industry, for example, needed small paper envelopes, boxes with labels to display them, receipts, billheads, invoices, catalogs, and broadsides for accounting and promotional purposes. In the 1860s, at just the New Lebanon, NY, community, as an example, more than two and a half million seed envelopes were printed. Today only a few hundred of these survive. The Shakers are a singular phenomenon in American culture; the longest lived of the many communitarian groups which once dotted the landscape. For anyone interested in their history, ephemera--even the minute fraction which has survived--provides a unique window through which to study their economic life. In most instances the products themselves have long since vanished and the ledgers, journals, and shop records are incomplete. Ephemera, alone, is the most tangible remnant of the various and invaluable Shaker industries.

 

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Aside from catalogues and packets, collectors can find an array of other advertising items, including yet not limited to posters, broadsides, displays, tradecards, postcards, blotters, billheads, advertising envelopes and booklets, and of course, the boxes with those fabulous interior labels that were designed to be given away after the packets were sold. Many schools gave these boxes to children for fund raising, to sell the packets, and keep thereafter. Others were used for counter-top sales in general stores.


All seed companies did not sell seed packets, which were introduced by the Shakers. Many companies shipped seed in bulk or only sold plants and bulbs. For collectors, there are some companies that have beautiful 150-page catalogues, yet have no seed packets; while others have scores of packets, yet the catalogues (if any) are lacking in illustration and information. Jerome B. Rice, having a variety of beautiful packets, did not publish catalogues; while John Lewis Childs, with his catalogues containing numerous chromolithographed plates, did not print a large amount of packets. What few Childs’ packets remain, tend to be plain, with no illustrations. The same is true for Wm. Henry Maule’s company.


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Moore, Barrington, Jr. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Boston: Beacon, 1966.

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In addition to treaties, which are supposed to enshrine certain rights to land, resources and more, federal law also protects Indigenous rights, namely the . Since 2008, the rights of First Nations people living on have also been covered by the Canadian Human Rights Act. cases have clarified definitions of Indigenous rights, and particularly Indigenous rights (or title) to . For example, the in 1997 showed that Aboriginal title constituted an ancestral right protected by the Constitution.

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This book is a classic. Using a structuralist perspective, it shows how different configurations of social coalitions (the peasantry, the landed upper classes, and the bourgeoisie) led to different outcomes: dictatorship or democracy.

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The — another federal law — does not enshrine rights (quite the contrary, it has been historically oppressive), but it has impacted Indigenous rights. The Indian Act creates legal categories of Status and Non-Status that have caused division among Indigenous peoples (see and .) Status Indians have certain privileges, such as the right to not pay taxes on certain goods, while Non-Status Indians do not. However, many Indigenous peoples (both Status and Non-Status) refuse to be defined by this federal law.