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Great Schools. (April 2, 2015). “Implications of High-Stakes Testing for Students With Learning Disabilities,”

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4. What services are available for students with disabilities underSection 504?
I greatly appreciated this section on “What Are Classrooms Like for Students with Learning Disabilities.” It is a helpful reminder for us all to consider the various factors students with learning disabilities experience in a school setting. This also prompts us to intentionally think and act on how we can better create an environment that supports our students. The three “Ideas to Investigate” provide beneficial steps we can take to observe and examine what’s going on in our classrooms and with each student. This investigation is vital for us to understand what the needs of our students are and how we can help them. Idea 3 is a step that I feel some people might struggle doing. It requires time, effort, an open mind, adaptability, and flexibility. However, if educators can understand the benefits these actions have on their students my hope is that they can commit to this positive progress in their classrooms.

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For more information about teaching children with learning disabilities, visit .
Your FAFSA gathers data used by administrators to gauge your precise level of college need. Income, what school you attend, how many siblings you have in college, and a host of other factors influence your financial outlook. FAFSA information is distilled to determine your Expected Family Contribution (EFC), the number used by campus officials to assemble your aid package. Students with low EFC qualify for , while those with the greatest levels of financial hardship are also offered supplemental grants through the Department of Education’s (FSEOG) program.

 

Making Science Labs Accessible to Students with Disabilities


Federal law requires 95% test participation, including for the vast majority of students with disabilities. (One percent of all students may be assessed to alternative standards with alternative assessments. Federal law leaves it up to each state to decide what to do if a school or district does not test 95%.) The theory is that full inclusion in testing will drive full inclusion in learning the “standard” academic curriculum. But for some students with significant disabilities, state standardized tests are cognitively inappropriate. They may become a grueling and traumatic exercise, wasting time that could be spent working to make progress on their individual learning goals. For some, the testing borders on (or crosses the line) into abuse. For example, the mother of a profoundly disabled Florida student described how her son got pressure sores and developed respiratory infections after long test sessions in his wheelchair.


The Section 504 regulations require a school district to provide a "freeappropriate public education" (FAPE) to each qualified student with a disabilitywho is in the school district's jurisdiction, regardless of the nature or severityof the disability. Under Section 504, FAPE consists of the provision of regularor special education and related aids and services designed to meet the student'sindividual educational needs as adequately as the needs of nondisabled studentsare met.


Standardized Testing and Students with Disabilities | …

The sample for this research comprised 15 currently enrolled college or university students with learning disabilities. Screening and documentation of students' disabilities was conducted by examining the university program for students with learning disabilities admissions' information. This documentation material included identification during elementary or secondary school and testing information and screening by university staff. The sample students for this study were identified as having a high aptitude in elementary and secondary school, but most were not selected for participation in their district's gifted program, if one existed, because of the learning problems they experienced due to their learning disabilities. Extensive information was used to document the label of giftedness, such as IQ and/or achievement tests, outstanding performance in one or more academic areas, teacher nomination, and product information from an academic portfolio. Nine of the participants were males and 6 were females; full-scale scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised ranged from 109 to 140, although each participant scored 125 or higher in either the verbal or performance scale. Significant differences were found between verbal and performance scores in several of the participants, ranging from 6 to 40 points. The use of the IQ of 125 or above is not because any particular IQ score can be equated with giftedness, but rather because a score of this level is indicative of a well-above-average aptitude. Using any IQ cutoff to identify academically talented students with learning disabilities is problematic because of discrepancies among scores as well as decreasing scores over time, due to the nature of the learning disability and the inability of some students to learn information measured on these types of assessments.
Data Collection
This qualitative, comparative cross-case study (Erlandson, Harris, Skipper, & Allen, 1993; Miles & Huberman, 1994; Yin, 1994) of academically talented students with learning disabilities was conducted with college students. Miles and Huberman believe that "... one aim of studying multiple cases is to increase generalizability. At a deeper level, the aim is to see processes and outcomes across many cases and thus to develop more sophisticated descriptions and more powerful explanations" (p. 172). Merriam (2001), Miles and Huberman, and Yin suggest the use of qualitative comparative case study as an appropriate methodology for the indepth study of a number of cases to make analytical generalizations.
Prior to the initial interview, each participant was provided with a biographical questionnaire and written information about the study and his or her anticipated role in it, and permission was sought from each participant for interviews, document review, and parent contacts. Parents and/or teachers also were asked to complete a brief summary of their perceptions of academic history and each interview session was used to clarify, verify, and expand upon the subject's responses. All interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed and the field notes and observations made by the researcher at the time of the interviews were added to the transcriptions. Interviews and other data collection procedures followed guidelines suggested by Spradley (1979), Strauss (1987), and Strauss and Corbin (1990).
Data Analysis
Data analysis was conducted using techniques designed by Strauss (1987) and Strauss and Corbin (1990). As suggested by these researchers, data analysis coincided with data collection and affected the collection of additional data. Data analysis techniques included the use of a coding paradigm described by Strauss, and Strauss and Corbin, with three levels: open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. This coding paradigm results in the formulation of a core category or categories of results. The initial type of coding, known as open coding, involved unrestricted coding of all data included in field notes, interviews, and other pertinent documents. In open coding, data were analyzed and coded. As the researchers verified codes and determined relationships among and between codes, a determination was made about the relationship of a code to a category. After initial categories were determined, axial coding enabled the researchers to specify relationships among the many categories that emerged in open coding and, ultimately, resulted in the conceptualization of one or more categories selected as the "core." A core category accounted for most of the variation in a pattern of behavior; therefore, "the generation of theory occurs around a core category" (Strauss, p. 34). In the final stage of coding, selective coding, the relationships among categories were examined to determine the saturation of categories in the identification of the core category.

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Results
The findings in this study identified a dominant core category for both participants and parents involving the negative experiences that all participants had in school due to the interaction of their abilities and their disabilities and the way that those experiences affected their social and emotional development. The negative experiences included problems with teachers and peers, as well as internal problems such as low self-confidence and low self-esteem.