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Jul 06, 2015 · 1978 was the worst year for beer diversity in post-Prohibition America, with only 89 breweries operating in the entire country

Corporate America's Staggering Sexism, In 1 Chart | HuffPost

Sexism | Definition of Sexism by Merriam-Webster

Jun 24, 2011 · Sexism in the American workforce doesn’t look like it once did
A specific danger of self-objectification is self-sexualization, when self-worth is conflated with sexual desirability, even in contexts when sexuality is irrelevant. If a woman comes to see herself as a sex object in contexts that have nothing to do with sex, she is self-sexualizing. Even for someone who enjoys being sexual in sexual contexts, the sense of oneself as existing simply as an object of sexual desire can start to pervade everything. For instance, a woman may be monogamous, in a satisfying relationship, and not interested in bringing her sexuality into any other arena in her life besides her partnership. Nonetheless, she may feel the need to think of herself in terms of sexual attractiveness and desirability across social contexts. If self-worth has become tied up in self-objectification, and if the kind of object that is being objectified is a sexual one, then self-worth gets tied into sexualization. This is a precursor to many women losing a sense of their own sexual interests and desires, a topic we expand upon in the section about loss of self below.

Internalized Sexism - Cultural bridges to justice

After eighteen months of travel in Latin America, Flora looks at the sexist attitude toward women in Latino 'machismo' culture that she experienced.
Because of the history of sexism, girls are provided with few female role models in some fields. For instance, if girls don’t see women in the sciences serving as models of what is possible for them when they grow up, the lack may seem natural, leading them to imagine that men must just be better scientists than women. As a result, they may expect themselves to have low mathematical and scientific abilities, may even question the overall intelligence of girls. As they grow up, they may then discourage the girls in their lives from developing these capacities. When a girl has internalized these kinds of low expectations, or received outright discouragement, she may come to declare that she is The belief that girls will not make good scientists leads to a lack of support for girls to pursue science, which leads to fewer female scientists, which leads back to the belief that girls will not make good scientists. Internalized sexism helps to perpetuate the cycle, to pass limiting beliefs from one generation to the next.

 

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Being objectified by others is only part of the process of objectification. After a long enough immersion in social environments where they and other women are objectified, women start to internalize the objectifier, to adopt the stance of an outside observer in understanding their own bodies. They begin to self-objectify. The social importance of physical appearance begins to outweigh the personal importance of inner felt-sense experience, and a kind of disembodiment results. Instead of feeling their bodies from the inside, and inhabiting them from within, women imagine how their bodies are seen from the outside, and evaluate them from without. One result of this change in viewpoint is that women can conflate their self-image with their body-image. Even if a woman has come to hold very negative beliefs about her own body, in the absence of self-objectification, she might still be able to have a very high sense of self-worth, because self-image and body-image would not seem to be one and the same. Research on self-objectification in women has demonstrated that self-objectification can reduce overall well-being, and that it contributes to depression, eating disorders, and cosmetic surgery. Self-objectification, though it allows women to play the social game of managing their appearances to meet the demands of a sexist society, does so at great cost.


Both objectification and self-objectification for women intersect with other forms of oppression. Agism, the social invalidation and dehumanization of people above a certain age, intersects with sexism to lower women’s sense of self-worth as their appearances drift ever further from the social ideal of youthfulness. The “beauty” industry instructs women to maintain a youthful appearance as they age, a goal that becomes increasingly impossible to attain. For women who manage to resist the imperative to look younger than they are, a great freedom sometimes becomes available. For the first time in many women’s lives, they may find themselves free of the internalized expectation that they need to try to match any standard at all. Giving up on playing the impossible game can mean finding other ways to sense one’s self-worth and other foundations for being a woman in the world.


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Keep in mind that while these practices tend to be universal to the experience of women, they can take dramatically different forms in different cultural contexts, spanning the range from overt to subtle. Women may experience relative freedom from some types of internalized sexism while still being susceptible to others. For example, a woman may occupy a high leadership position in a male-dominated profession, having overcome an internalized sense of her limitations, yet still compare her body with media images of women every time she looks in the mirror due to self-objectification. Even “liberated” women, who have had enough resource to step out of some, or even most, of the gender role conditioning, may benefit from an inventory of how internalized sexism still operates within them. For them, the ongoing effects of internalized sexism may be harder to identify and feel more shameful to acknowledge. The effects could be experienced as a discomfort in the roles she occupies, an internal sense of emptiness or aloneness, restlessness, or a persistent anxiety or tension. She might harbor silent resentment at doing housework, while convincing herself that she is choosing to do it because she wants to. She might find herself justifying the nontraditional role she is assuming, celebrating her victory in the struggle for gender equality by occupying a leadership position formerly occupied by only men, but then perpetuating the subtly sexist ways men have acted in that role. As universal as these practices tend to be, they vary across cultural communities and between individual women.

Ruth Bader Ginsburg Says Sexism A 'Major, Major …

Racism is another form of oppression that intersects with sexism to create external standards for women to compare themselves against. The concept of objectification has classically been associated with body size and shape, and with standards of sexual attractiveness. For women of color, however, self-objectification may have as much to do with ethnic characteristics, such as skin color and hair type, as it has to do with body size or general looks. Consider, as an example, the international phenomenon of skin lightening creams. In parts of the world where racism leads people to value lighter shades of skin over darker ones, especially in countries with a history of colonization by European empires, skin lightening creams and pills (which are often toxic) may feature centrally in the appearance modification industry. Advertising for these products plays on people who self-objectify with an eye for ethnicity and an internalized preference for Whiteness. Another example of internalized racism coloring self-objectification is in the internalized preference for straight hair among communities such as African Americans, where most people’s hair is naturally kinky. A tremendous amount of time, energy, and money goes into hair relaxing, straightening, and extending products and procedures for African American women. In addition to being a significant resource drain, this particular focus on appearance modification also contributes directly to the disembodying effects of self-objectification, as many African American women cite, as a reason for not exercising, the concerns that sweating and vigorous activity will ruin their hair.