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"Data Wales: The Welsh and slavery in America"
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Next to the industrialization of farming, the greatest cause of the explosion of world human population, which began growing with increasing rapidity during the last half of the 1700s, was likely the introduction of New World crops to the rest of humanity. For providing human-digestible calories, New World crops were superior in significant ways. Maize is Earth’s hardiest seed crop, and Native Americans developed more than three thousand varieties of it, so it could thrive from northern forest to arid desert, from mountaintop to seashore. Northern China came to subsist on the sweet potato. Ireland, Russia, and other harsh climates came to rely on the potato, which provided nearly double the calories of a wheat crop in half the time for less work at cultivation. It was a healthier food than wheat (people can subsist solely on the potato) and was not as subject to the vagaries of weather. The cassava root and maize became Africa's staple, which led to its population increase that began during the 19th century. When New World crops were introduced to Old World agriculture, famines decreased and populations exploded, in Malthusian fashion. With the introduction of the potato, Ireland grew from 3.2 million in 1754 to 8.2 million in 1845, while an additional 1.75 million migrated to the New World. Today, more than half of the world’s crops are of New World origin.

Edward Thomas (1878 – 1917) | The War Poets Association

Why do Welsh names seem to be so common within the African American community
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For those who came to the New World in those early days, they had other benefits that did not accrue directly to Europe. The Spanish soldiers got the dream of a lifetime as they raped every native woman that they could. If it was not rape, they had harems of as many as 80 women for one man. They enjoyed the benefits of native slaves and concubines while they lasted. The sexual relations between the Spanish soldiers and natives were virtually never romantic love and were not relations of equality. The Spanish soldiers exercised the conqueror’s prerogative. They set themselves up as lords on the native backs. The English "settlers" stole the land from the natives, which . They killed off countless , , and fur-bearing animals while they lasted. They deforested many millions of acres in the name of "progress." Stealing native land and enslaving and raping the natives were the "benefits" to the settlers. In addition, more than ten million Africans "migrated" to the New World in chains, while an equivalent number or perhaps even more did not survive the process.


A tribute to Sherpas, the tigers of the snow – Mark Horrell

[Philip] Edward Thomas grew up in London, his parents having migrated there from Wales
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Jews participated in Europe's rape of the world. Jewish financiers helped fund New World expeditions, they owned many of the ships used in the slave trade, and were part of the money economy that craved gold and silver. They were largely forced into those positions, but they could have migrated to the Islamic world and been treated better than Europe did, but for a number of reasons, such as increased economic opportunity, the Jews stayed in Europe, although the Middle East was more their "natural" home.

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The Cherokee were liberal in adopting people into their tribe, which is partly why they are the largest surviving tribe today. John Ross was only one-eighth Cherokee. There were blond haired and blue-eyed Cherokee. A Western Cherokee, the reclusive Sequoyah, performed one of the greatest intellectual feats of all time by creating a Cherokee alphabet. It was easy to learn and most of the tribe became literate by 1825, with a literacy rate higher than most of the world, even the USA. The Cherokee created a true nation, with a constitution, and elected John Ross as its “Principal Chief.” By 1828, they had a national weekly newspaper, published in Cherokee and English. The Cherokee were out-whiting the whites. The Cherokee were more prosperous than the neighboring whites and their groomed lands and society became the envy of the region. They even had African slaves (the Cherokee’s slaves were largely treated better than African slaves of whites, but they were still slaves). Subsequent events betrayed the racist foundation of the white invasions and exterminations of Native Americans. Gold was found in northern Georgia in 1828 and 1829, which created a gold rush on Cherokee lands as the white miners flooded in. History has rarely recorded a , as greed and desperation are their most salient characteristics, whether it was or 19th century America. The Georgia gold rush foreshadowed the gold rushes that propelled the invasion and “settlement” of whites west of the Mississippi River. With a new lure of greed, the Georgia government then began plotting the Cherokee expulsion in earnest.

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The main Caribbean game was plantation work, although Portugal finally joined the big game with a gold strike, finally, in Minas Gerais in Brazil. Then the Portuguese had their very own gold rush, which saw about 600,000 Portuguese citizens migrate there by 1760. The Portuguese Crown tried keeping control and getting its cut, but greedy chaos prevailed regularly, as in all gold rushes. As with all New World gold rushes to that time, slaves were needed to make it work. The 18th century was the greatest era of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Portugal, being the inventors of the African-Atlantic-Americas slave trade, was also its biggest beneficiary. More than half of the slave voyages to the New World were Portuguese, and of the estimated 11 million Africans who survived to become New World slaves (with probably at least an equal number dying, and perhaps as many as 30 million or more, in the process), more than 4.5 million ended up in Brazil, and the English were in second place with 2.6 million slaves. A Brazilian slave could be expected to provide about seven years of usefulness before dying.

Madison Grant | The West’s Darkest Hour

Europe’s imperial jockeying in the New World led to war after war against the natives and each other, and the pacifistic sects in Pennsylvania were hard-pressed to maintain their ideals. The religious idealism of William Penn soon degenerated into seizing native land. Penn’s gang became Pennsylvania’s ruling class, and they eventually abandoned their pacifism and advocated an armed militia to keep the natives in line. Opposing the increasingly militant English Penn cadre were numerous German immigrants who still held to the Quakers’ pacifist ideals. Penn recruited religious sects throughout Europe, and the Church of the Brethren was one of many radical European religious groups that eventually came to Pennsylvania, to escape persecution as well as pursue economic opportunity. The Sauer family became prominent printers, especially Johann Christoph and his son Christopher II, although their story is obscure today.