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PRAENOMEN (plural, praenomina): See discussion under .

Hanseatic League: Main Trade Routes. Public domain image.

The one red leaf, the last of its clan That dances as often as dance it can.
PATHETIC FALLACY: A type of often accidental or awkward personification in which a writer ascribes the human feelings of his or her characters to inanimate objects or non-human phenomena surrounding them in the natural world. J. A. Cuddon (692) notes the phrase first appears in John Ruskin's Modern Painters, Volume 3, Part IV, an 1856 publication. For Ruskin, the term is derogatory. An example might be Coleridge's Christabel, in which we read of a dancing autumn leaf:

Nicola Pisano, pulpit of the BaptistryPisa, ItalyMarble. h: 15′

PERIPHRASE: See discussion under . Not to be confused with paraphrase.
One piece that strikes me as the most interesting is the Venus of Urbino painted by Titian. Titian harked back to the Greek classical style of goddesses being nude and thus portrayed Venus completely nude in this painting. However, there are small details in the background, such as a little girl burrowing her head into a chest and an elderly women watching her. I think there is a sense of unity missing in this piece because the elderly woman wearing attired clothing and the little girl seem to be minding their own business, and a dog sleeping on the bed is not looking at the viewer. Venus on the other hand is laying on a bed looking directly at the viewer, and she is in a relaxed state, possibly because she is meant to be the focus of attention and the purpose of the painting is meant to express her beauty.


photo by flickr user manelzaera

Pope Paul III convokes the Council of Trent (1545-1563), which spearheads the Catholic Counter-Reformation. The church seeks to condemn Protestant “heresies,” reform certain church practices such as the sale of indulgences, reaffirm Catholic theology, and rekindle the ardor of the faithful.

Henry VIII’s Act of Supremacy, separation of the Church of England from Rome due to pope’s refusal to grant his divorce from Catherine of Aragon.

The French pope Clement V moves the papacy to Avignon, France.

French cardinals reject the election of the Italian Pope Urban VI and name Clement VII as Pope. Beginning of the Great Schism, which lasts until 1471.

Duccio completes his for Siena Cathedral

Dante Alighieri, a Florentine, begins writing The Divine Comedy, an epic poem describing heaven, purgatory, and hell. Written in regional Italian rather than Latin, these works fused Christian theology with Dante’s knowledge of the ancient Roman world.

Buonamico BuffalmaccoCamposanto, PisaFresco

• Old Byzantine Style
• Shows the “increasingly prominent role of religious orders,” especially the mendicant orders, the Dominicans and Franciscans

Boccaccio’s Decameron is published

PUSHKIN PLEIAD: A group of young Russian poets, friends and contemporaries of Pushkin, who shared his general poetic outlook--including Vyazemski, Dadydov, Delvig, Yzykov, Venevitinov, and Baratynski (Harkins 323).

Berlin joins the Hanseatic League.

In Hebrew writings, early readers probably saw the passage as a mere narrative to explain humanity's herptophobias, but early in the Christian tradition, New Testament thinkers sought to reconcile the Old Testament and the New Testament. Accordingly, the author of Romans 16:20 interpreted the "seed of the woman" as being the offspring of the Virgin Mary (Christ). Several Church fathers such as Justin Martyr and Irenaeus elaborated upon the passage, treating the "bruising of thy heel" as the act of crucifixion, and so forth. The idea of the protevangelium becomes part of Milton's Paradise Lost, in which the fallen angel Lucifer literally transforms into a serpent to strike at Christ's creation, but the Archangel Michael explains to Adam how God, through mysterious providence, will allow the offspring of Eve in the form of Christ to crush the serpent eventually. See Book XII, lines 380 et passim of Milton's Paradise Lost.