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21/02/2018 · John Rawls (1921—2002) John Rawls was arguably the most important political philosopher of the twentieth century

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In response to this challenge, Barry himself explores a number ofavenues, including questioning whether economic distribution is reallyanalogous to a race. Rawls, of course, responded to his own challengeby arguing that there is not a lot that can be done (morally) to makethe social and natural opportunities more equal, so the fair responseis to adopt the Difference Principle. Others, however, have taken thischallenge in different directions.

Distributive Justice (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Scope and Role of Distributive Principles
There is no one feminist conception of distributive justice; feministsdefend positions across the political spectrum. Hence, feminists offerdistinctive versions of all the theories considered so far as well asothers. One way of thinking about what unifies many feminist theoristsis an interest in what difference, if any, the practical experience ofgender makes to the subject matter or study of justice; how differentfeminists answer this question distinguishes them from each other andfrom those alternative distributive principles that most inspire theirthinking.


Distributive principles vary in numerous dimensions

Aristotle: Politics | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
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It is important to distinguish desert-payments from entitlements. Fordesert theorists a well-designed institutional structure will make itso that many of the entitlements people have are deserved. Butentitlements and just deserts are not conceptually the same andregularly come apart. For instance, as Feinberg notes, a person can beentitled to assume the presidential office without deserving it(Feinberg 1970, 86) and a person who accidentally apprehends acriminal may be entitled to a reward but not deserve it. Conversely, ateam may deserve to win the championship prize but not be entitled toit or a person may deserve an economic benefit but not be entitled toit. Indeed, these and many other instances of desert and entitlementscoming apart provide the bases for desert theorists to argue forinstitutional reform. For desert theorists, the institutionalstructure should facilitate people’s economic entitlements(including one’s property holdings) tracking their justdeserts.

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Utilitarians face a greater problem than this theoretical one indetermining what material distribution, or institutional structure, isprescribed by their theory. Those who share similar utilitariantheoretical principles frequently recommend very differentdistributions or structures to implement the principles. This problemoccurs for other theories, with recommendations for distributions oreconomic structures to implement commonly varying among advocates withsimilar theoretical principles. But the advocates for otherdistributive principles tend to cluster significantly with respect towhat they recommend. This is much less the case with respect toadvocates for utilitarian and welfare-based distribution principleswith advocates dispersed in their recommendations across the fullrange of possible distributions and economic structures. For instance,many preference utilitarians believe their principle prescribesstrongly egalitarian structures with lots of state intervention whileother preference utilitarians believe it prescribes a laissezfaire style of capitalism.

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You can’t equate NAZISM with Zionism. Sure they where both nationalistic and at times cooperated with one another for mutual goals, but nationalism alone does not make one a NAZI. NAZISM is a combination of the Marxist belief that some races should be exterminated, the Anglo Saxon Supremacist belief that a superior race should dominate a less capable race, lip service to ethnic purity(SS where known to marry non German women in the occupied nations in surprising numbers) and fascism(belief that all elements within a society should be forcibly compelled to work for the betterment of society as a whole).

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Unfortunately the article is very-well written and I would say obviously true as its theory sits atop more empirical evidence than practically any well-established theory of either natural or social science. I would only make one correction. The text below the article, “Comments”, should read, “Further Experimental Evidence.”