• Introduction | The Obesity Epidemic
  • NCCP | Adolescent Obesity in the United States
  • Obesity Epidemic in the United States | SpringerLink

12) Does sedentary behaviour explain the timing and the increase in obesity? Can exercise be a cure for the obesity epidemic?

Incidence of Childhood Obesity in the United States | …

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Between the ages of 5 and 14 years, 11.9% of children became obese (10.1% of girls and 13.7% of boys) (). By eighth grade, 16.8% of non-Hispanic black children became obese, as did 10.1% of non-Hispanic white children and children of other races or ethnic groups and 14.3% of Hispanic children. The lowest cumulative incidence of obesity according to socioeconomic status was among children from the wealthiest 20% of families (7.4%), and the highest was among children from the middle socioeconomic quintile (15.4%).

Childhood Obesity: An Epidemic in the United States | …

01/01/2018 · Millions of people in the United States are considered obese
Emerging from the finding that a substantial component of childhood obesity is established by the age of 5 years are questions about how early the trajectory to obesity begins and about the relative roles of early-life home and preschool environments, intrauterine factors, and genetic predisposition. Although these questions are beyond the scope of our study, we have shown some evidence that factors that are established before birth (indicated by birth weight) and those that occur during the first 5 years of life (indicated by weight at kindergarten entry) are important. Even though high-birth-weight children made up 12% of the population, they represented more than 36% of those who were obese at the age of 14 years. Thus, more than one third of high-birth-weight children became obese adolescents, as did almost half the children (45.3%) who entered kindergarten overweight.

 

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Although prevalence estimates provide information on the burden of obesity, understanding incidence is key to understanding risk over a lifetime and identifying potential ages for intervention. We uncovered several important points by examining incidence. First, a component of the course to obesity is already established by the age of 5 years: half of childhood obesity occurred among children who had become overweight during the preschool years, even after the exclusion of the 12.4% of children who were already obese at the age of 5 years. There is evidence that body weight and eating patterns early in life are strongly related to subsequent obesity risks. Second, obesity incidence among overweight children tended to occur early in elementary school. This pattern is consistent with exhaustion of the population of persons who are highly susceptible to becoming obese. In contrast, among children who entered school at a normal weight, the incidence of obesity was low and constant between the ages of 5 and 14 years.


Our estimates are consistent with nationally representative data, which showed the prevalence of obesity at 16.9% among all children and 18.0% among elementary-school children between the ages of 6 and 11 years in 2009 and 2010. The incidence of obesity between adolescence and adulthood in the United States was estimated at 2.5% annually from 1995 through 2000. In a study of 386 children between the ages of 5 and 7 years attending Philadelphia health care centers from 1996 through 2003, the incidence of obesity was 2% annually among normal-weight children and 14% among overweight children.


Obesity in the United States - Wikipedia

Overweight kindergartners had four times the risk of becoming obese by the age of 14 years as normal-weight kindergartners (). The relative risks of obesity among overweight kindergartners, as compared with normal-weight kindergartners, were highest among children from the two highest socioeconomic groups. Thus, overweight children from the two highest socioeconomic groups had five times the risk of becoming obese as normal-weight children of similar socioeconomic status, whereas an overweight child from the lowest socioeconomic group had only 3.4 times the risk of obesity as a normal-weight child of similar socioeconomic status. Non-Hispanic white and black kindergartners who were overweight had higher incidences of obesity (by factors of 4.4 and 4.3, respectively) than did normal-weight children; among Hispanic children, the incidence was higher by a factor of 2.8. The largest differences in risk were among children who had a birth weight of more than 4000 g and had become overweight by the age of 5 years. These children were 5.1 times as likely to become obese during the subsequent 9 years as were children with the same high birth weight whose growth trajectories led to a normal weight at the age of 5 years.

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The annualized incidence of obesity was fairly constant among normal-weight kindergartners but fell with increasing age from high levels among children who were overweight at kindergarten entry. The results are consistent with incident obesity occurring largely among the minority of children who become overweight at young ages, with incidence tapering off as this susceptible pool is exhausted.

Childhood Obesity Facts | Overweight & Obesity | CDC

The high incidence of obesity among children who were overweight in kindergarten fell with increasing age, so that between the ages of 11 and 14 years, the annual incidence was 3.7% (4.8% for boys and 2.6% for girls) (Table S2 in the ). A total of 31.8% of the children who were overweight at kindergarten entry had become obese by the age of 14 years, as compared with 7.9% of their normal-weight kindergarten classmates (). Even among kindergartners from families with the highest socioeconomic status, the incidence was much higher among those who had been overweight rather than normal weight in kindergarten. There were no significant differences in incidence among children of various races or ethnic groups who were already overweight in kindergarten.