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They called her Water Claire. When she washed up on their shore, no one knew that she came from a society where emotions and colors didn't exist. That she had become a Vessel at age thirteen. That she had carried a Product at age fourteen. That it had been stolen from her body. Claire had a son. But what became of him she never knew. What was his name? Was he even alive?? She was supposed to forget him, but that was impossible. Now Claire will stop at nothing to find her child, even if it means making an unimaginable sacrifice.

thrusts readers once again into the chilling world of the Newbery Medal winning book, , as well as and where a new hero emerges. In this thrilling series finale, the startling and long-awaited conclusion to Lois Lowry's epic tale culminates in a final clash between good and evil.

Native Americans in the United States - Wikipedia

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right,Richard (4 Sept. 1908-28 Nov. 1960), author, was born Richard Nathaniel Wright on Rucker'sPlantation, between Roxie and Natchez, Mississippi, the son of Nathaniel Wright, anilliterate sharecropper, and Ella Wilson, a schoolteacher. When Wright was five, hisfather left the family and his mother was forced to take domestic jobs away from thehouse. Wright and his brother spent a period at an orphanage. Around 1920 Ella Wrightbecame a paralytic, and the family moved from Natchez to Jackson, then to Elaine,Arkansas, and back to Jackson to live with Wright's maternal grandparents, who wererestrictive Seventh-day Adventists. Wright moved from school to school, graduating fromthe ninth grade at the Smith Robertson Junior High School in Jackson as the classvaledictorian in June 1925. Wright had published his first short story, "The Voodooof Hell's Half-Acre," in three parts in the in 1924, but nocopies survive. His staunchly religious and illiterate grandmother, Margaret BoldenWilson, kept books out of the house and thought fiction was the work of the devil. Wrightkept any aspirations he had to be a writer to himself after his first experience withpublication.

 

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In Chicago Wright worked at the post office, at Michael Reese Hospital taking care oflab animals, and as an insurance agent, among other jobs. There, in 1932, he becameinvolved in the John Reed Club, an intellectual arm of the Communist party, which hejoined the next March. By 1935 he found work with the Federal Negro Theater in Chicagounder the Federal Writers' Project. He wrote some short stories and a novel during thistime, but they were not published until after his death. In 1937 Wright moved to New YorkCity, where he helped start magazine and was the Harlem editor of the as well as coeditor of . Wright's literary career waslaunched when his short story collection, (1938), won firstprize for the magazine contest open to Federal Writer's Project authors forbest book-length manuscript. Harper's published this collection with "Fire andCloud," "Long Black Song," "Down by the Riverside," and "BigBoy Leaves Home"; in 1940 the story "Bright and Morning Star" was added,and the book was reissued. followed in 1940, the first bestselling novelby a black American writer and the first Book-of-the-Month Club selection by anAfrican-American writer. It sold 215,000 copies in its first three weeks of publication. made Wright the most respected and wealthiest black writer in America; he wasawarded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's prestigiousSpingarn Medal in 1941. After , Wright declared in "HowBigger Was Born" that he needed to write a book that bankers' daughters would not beable to "read and feel good about," that would "be so hard and deep thatthey would have to face it without the consolation of tears"; isuncompromising.


To divest himself of Wright's influence, Baldwin wrote a series of three essayscriticizing Wright's use of naturalism and protest fiction. In "Everybody's ProtestNovel," published in in 1949, Baldwin concludes, "Thefailure of the protest novel lies in its rejection of life, the human being, the denial ofhis beauty, dread, power, in its insistence that it is his categorization alone which isreal and which cannot be transcended." On the other hand, Wright has been creditedwith presaging the Black Arts Movement of the 1960s, particularly in his protest poetry,much of which was published in Chicago in the 1930s. As Irving Howe said in his 1963 essay"Black Boys and Native Sons," "The day appeared, Americanculture was changed forever. No matter how much qualifying the book might later need, itmade impossible a repetition of the old lies . . . [and] brought out into theopen, as no one ever had before, the hatred, fear, and violence that have crippled and mayyet destroy our culture."


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During 1940-1941 Wright collaborated with Paul Green to write a stage adaptation of . It ran on Broadway in the spring of 1941 and was produced by John Houseman andstaged by Orson Welles. Simultaneously, Wright published his sociological-psychologicaltreatise (1941), with photographs collected by Edwin Rosskam; the book was well received. Hisautobiography, , came out in 1945, again a bestseller andBook-of-the-Month Club selection, although the U.S. Senate denounced as"obscene." The later section about his life in Chicago and experience with theCommunist party was not published until 1977 under the title .Wright's publishers in 1945 had only wanted the story of his life in the South and cutwhat followed about his life in the North. There have been numerous biographies of Wright,but all must begin with , Wright's personal and emotional account of hischildhood and adolescence in the Jim Crow South. In a famous passage in the autobiographythat has bothered critics and set Wright apart from the African-American sense ofcommunity, he asserts the "cultural barrenness of black life": ". . . I used to mull over the strange absence of real kindness in Negroes, howunstable was our tenderness, how lacking in genuine passion we were, how void of greathope, how timid our joy, how bare our traditions, how hollow our memories, how lacking wewere in those intangible sentiments that bind man to man, and how shallow was even ourdespair." He found an "unconscious irony" in the idea that "Negroesled so passional an existence": "I saw that what had been taken for ouremotional strength was our negative confusions, our flights, our fears, our frenzy underpressure." Statements like these are contradicted by others that describe a caringcommunity. For example, when Wright's mother suffers a paralytic stroke, "theneighbors nursed my mother day and night, fed us and washed our clothes," and Wrightadmits to being "ashamed that so often in my life I had to be fed by strangers."

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's Native Son was published in 1940 and the novel is typical of the "Naturalist" genre of American prose fiction that dominated the era. With European antecedents like Zola, Dickens and Doyle, American Naturalists continued the detailed psychological portraits of characters‹usually city-residents, where extreme poverty and overweening social structures provide the machinery for tragedy and fate. Indeed, Native Son is divided into three books: Fear-Flight-Fate, and the narrative makes no pretense that there will be a happy ending for Bigger, implying that there will be no happy ending for the ubiquitous "Biggers" that populate America's Black Belts. In a separate essay, "How Bigger Was Born," the novelist explains the character presented in Book One as a compilation of stereotypes and common tragedies, wryly named to be an obvious rhyme with a racial epithet. In Book One, Wright combines the social message of urban Naturalist prose with the tricks and mechanics of a detective story.