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Today, the CDC categorizes plague as along with anthrax, smallpox, and viral fevers like Ebola and Marburg.

Bioterrorism , National Security and Law

veterans without DU embedded fragments

 As Boodman writes, plague is actually one of the oldest bioweapons out there:
The cathode ray tube, already in widespread use in the television industry and elsewhere, seemed in theory a better bet than the capacitor as the basis for a high-speed computer memory. Early unsuccessful experiments with cathode ray tube storage focussed, not on the ordinary type of tube recommended by Turing and later employed by Williams, but on a more complicated type of tube called an iconoscope. The iconoscope was a light-sensitive tube used in television cameras; it converted the optical image produced by the camera lens into electricity. When the light image fell on the outside surface of a plate (or 'mosaic') at the end of the iconoscope, a pattern of electrical charge was created; this pattern was read by a scanning beam of electrons inside the tube and converted into electrical current. Instead of using light, the early storage experiments placed a pattern on the iconoscope's plate by means of the electron beam that read the pattern once stored. These experiments were carried out at the Radiation Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the aim was to store, not digital information for use in electronic computers, but analogue information—lines and shapes—in connection with echo cancellation in radar. The plan was to store a radar trace and then 'subtract' it from subsequent traces, so enabling the operator to see only moving objects.

The mean urine U measure was 0.009 µg U/g creatinine.

CENTCOM said that the ammunition was selected because of the "nature of the targets".
The incubation period is 10 - 14 days. In the acute forms, both glanders and melioidosis can present as an acute pulmonary infection or as an acute fulminant, rapidly fatal septicemic illness. These are the forms that would be expected in case of their use as bioweapons. Acute infection of the oral, nasal and conjunctival mucosa can cause bloody nasal discharge with septal and turbinate nodules and ulcerations. Systemic invasion can cause a papular or pustular rash that can be mistaken for small pox as well as hepatic, splenic and pulmonary abscesses. Acute forms of the diseases carry a high mortality rate.


Assessments (referred to as the Capstone Report).

Belgium is now the first country to prevent the flow of money to producers of uranium weapons.
This paper also contains updated figures about the quantities of DU shot during combat in Iraq, and new information about the results of DU testing of US and British veterans."Unresolved Issues Regarding Depleted Uranium And the Health of U.S.

veterans without a history of retained DU embedded fragments from previous injury.
Good, I. J. 'Early Notes on Electronic Computers', p. iv. See also Croarken, M. 'The Beginnings of the Manchester Computer Phenomenon: People and Influences', , vol. 15 (1993), pp. 9-16; Lee, J. A. N. Computer Pioneers (Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1995), p. 744.

Historical Perspective and Trends Related to Bioterrorism

Burks, A. W., Goldstine, H. H., von Neumann, J. 'Preliminary Discussion of the Logical Design of an Electronic Computing Instrument', Institute for Advanced Study, 28 June 1946 (reprinted in Vol. 5 of Taub, A. H. ed. (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1961)). The Manchester copy of the report (Copy #54) is in the National Archive for the History of Computing, University of Manchester.

Chronology of Anti-Bioterrorism (Biosafety) Actions (19).

Newman, W. 'Max Newman: Mathematician, Codebreaker and Computer Pioneer', in Copeland, B. J. et al. Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2006, new edition 2010).

Potential Biological Weapons Threat Repositories and Sources

Letter from Williams to Randell, 1972 (in Randell, B. 'On Alan Turing and the Origins of Digital Computers', in Meltzer, B., Michie, D. (ed.) (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1972); the letter is on p. 9).

Known and Suspected Uses of DU Munitions in Warfare See also:

The quotation is from Good's revised typescript of his acceptance speech delivered on 15 October 1998, p. 31. (Good sent Copeland a copy of this typescript in January 1999.)