• The Industrial Revolution
  • Life before and after industrial revolution
  • What is the economic impact of industrial revolution?

Although the Industrial Revolution did have a few drawbacks, the positive outcomes of the Revolution far outweighed the negative effects.

There are multiple reasons that the Industrial Revolution started.

Much of the world had not yet begun a first industrial revolution.

what were some major economic and technological changes with the industrial revolution?
This essay’s purpose, regarding the human journey’s epochal phases, is to show how humans achieved each Epochal Event, which was always about exploiting a new energy source, and how each event transformed the human journey. Although the civilizations of India and Southeast Asia had unique qualities and achievements, and the Buddhist religion has a great deal to commend (founded, as Christianity was, in the name of another “rebel,”) as well as other world religions, the primary preoccupation of all peoples for all time before the Industrial Revolution was avoiding starvation. Industrialized peoples seem to have partly forgotten this motivation.

Politics also changed during the Industrial Revolution.

Like its name suggests the Industrial Revolution had to do with the evolving Industry.
The rest of this chapter will trace many important preindustrial developments which helped set the stage for the Industrial Revolution, which is humanity’s fourth and most recent Epochal Event. But until the last few centuries in Europe preceding the Industrial Revolution, the basics among all civilizations did not appreciably change. Agriculture provided a local and stable energy supply that allowed for sedentism, forests were removed to make way for crops, and domestic animals were used to provide labor and/or flesh products, while their manure helped replenish soil nutrients depleted by agriculture. Virtually everywhere that agriculture appeared, so did civilization, with varying levels of urbanity. Elites dominated all civilizations, and they almost always invoked either a divine nature or divine sanction to justify their status, and they always engaged in conspicuous economic consumption. Cities situated on low-energy transportation lanes, which were almost always bodies of water, exploited forested and agricultural hinterlands, which were worked by peasants and slaves, while cities housed professionals and the elite. Forests and agriculture provided the primary energy supply of all preindustrial civilizations, which was usually supplemented with the products and services of domestic animals. All preindustrial civilizations were steeply hierarchical - economically, socially, and politically – and the means of production provided small surpluses that supported a small elite and professional class. Fighting over resources and plunder has been the primary predilection of all civilizations for all time, except for a very brief interlude at the beginnings of .


The changes were the industrial revolution that was taking place.

In 508 BCE, Athens entered its classical period, which lasted for nearly two centuries. In those two centuries, so much was invented by Greek philosophers and proto-scientists that it has been studied by scholars for thousands of years. One provocative question that scholars have posed is why the Industrial Revolution did not begin with the Greeks. The answer seems to be along the lines of Classic Greeks not having the social organization or sufficient history of technological innovation before wars and environmental destruction ended the Greek experiment. The achievements of Greece over the millennium of their intellectual fecundity are far too many to explore in this essay, but briefly, the Greeks invented: , , , the , a monetized economy, thought, such as , while developing other branches to unprecedented sophistication, and , which included the idea that . Long after the Classic Greek period was over, Hellenic intellectuals and inventors kept making innovations that had major impacts on later civilizations, such as Heron of Alexandria (or some other Greeks) inventing the and .

Until the 20th century, people had no idea how their activities impacted a portion of their environment that may end up hastening humanity’s demise more than self-made deserts: the atmosphere. Agriculture and civilization meant deforestation, and there is compelling evidence that the Domestication Revolution began altering the composition of Earth’s atmosphere from its earliest days. The natural trend of carbon dioxide decline was reversed beginning about 6000 BCE. Instead of declining from about 260 PPM at 6000 BCE to about 240 PPM today, which would have been the natural trend, it began rising and reached 275 PPM by about 3000 BCE. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were about 40 PPM higher than the natural trend would suggest. When a forest is razed and the resultant wood is burned, which is usually wood’s ultimate fate in civilizations, it liberated carbon that the tree absorbed from the atmosphere during . , and human activities began measurably adding methane to the atmosphere by about 3000 BCE, which coincided with the rise of the rice paddy system in China. In nature, methane is primarily produced by decaying vegetation in wetlands, both in the tropics and the Arctic, and human activities have increased wetlands even as they made other regions arid. Domestic grazing animals and human digestive systems also contribute to methane production. Atmospheric alteration by human activities has only come to public awareness in my lifetime, but human activities have had a measurable effect on greenhouse gases since the beginnings of civilization, even though the effects were modest compared to what has happened during the Industrial Revolution, as humans burn Earth’s hydrocarbon deposits with abandon.

The Industrial Revolution began in England in the 18th century.

In Sumer in the third millennium BCE, about 80% of the population lived in cities so that they could sleep behind fortifications to protect against attack. However, about 80-90% of the population was engaged in agriculture. Before industrialization, the vast majority of civilized populations were involved in agriculture, as the surplus could only support a small non-agricultural population, which was comprised of professionals and the elite. All elites for all time have engaged in conspicuous economic consumption as the mark of their status, as a form of . Until the Industrial Revolution, except for the brief , the primary preoccupation of all people for all time has been food security, as hunger was a constant specter. Just as the , it also defines the fortunes of civilizations.

First act of Industrial Revolution.

Fertile Crescent civilizations are universally regarded as humanity’s first. In China, people began to domesticate millet around eight kya, which was about 3,000 years after . Some scientists are skeptical that Chinese domestication really developed without any Fertile Crescent influence, even if it was just the of domestication. Similarly, in Mesoamerica, and people domesticated . The potato could have begun domestication in Peru . Those are the primary places where plants were domesticated independently in the Western Hemisphere, and the practice spread. . Whether the of domestication passed between regions where it is thought to have appeared independently, where the pig, for instance, may have been domesticated independently in the Fertile Crescent and China, nearly all domesticated plants and animals were probably domesticated , and the idea/technique/offspring spread. The horse, , is an instance when , with a limited number of stallions, and wild mares were subsequently incorporated into domestic herds. Once a herd animal was domesticated in the Fertile Crescent, the of domesticating herd animals certainly made subsequent domestication events less innovative. The Domestication Revolution, even if it happened in as many as nine places independently, as with the previous two Epochal Events (/controlling , and that ), the people who initiated the Third Epochal Event were relatively few. Probably only a few hundred people were beacons of innovation, or maybe even only a few dozen or less, when they are added together, and the domestication of animals in the Fertile Crescent may have had a lone inventor, or handful of them, who initiated the process, and the domestication of plants may have had similarly few inventors.