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Postdoc Eline Lorenzen University of CopenhagenOffice: +45 35 321225Mobile: +45 26 701024Email:

Megafauna extinction in South America: A new …

Explaining the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions: …

Postdoc Eline Lorenzen University of CopenhagenOffice: +45 35 321225Mobile: +45 26 701024Email:
The anatomy of habilines (members of ) spoke volumes about their lives. They had brains of about 640 ccs, with an estimated range of 600 to 700 ccs, nearly 50% larger than their australopithecine ancestors and nearly twice that of chimps, and the artifacts they left behind denoted advanced cognitive abilities. They stood about 1.5 meters tall (five feet), and weighed around 50 kilograms (120 pounds). With the first appearance of habilines about 2.3 mya, Oldowan culture spread widely in East Africa and also radiated to South Africa. Habiline skeletal adaptations to tree climbing meant that they slept there at night, just as their ancestral line did. Their teeth were large, which meant that they heavily chewed their food. Habiline sites have large rock hammers that they pounded food on, to break bones and crack nuts. Those habiline stone hammers may well have also been used to soften meat, roots, and other foods before eating them. Sleeping in trees meant that habilines were preyed on, mostly by big cats. Today, the leopard is the only regular predator of chimpanzees and gorillas, and at times. But if modern studies of chimpanzees are relevant, our ancestors engaged in warfare for the past several million years, and , so simian intra-species mass killings may have tens of millions of years of heritage. Habilines were not only wary of predators, but also of members of their own species.

'Smoking Gun' on the Ice Age Megafauna Extinctions ..

Postdoc Eline Lorenzen University of CopenhagenOffice: +45 35 321225Mobile: +45 26 701024Email:
Eske Willerslev says, “Our findings put a final end to the single-cause theories of the Ice Age extinctions, and suggests that care should be taken in making generalisations not just regarding past and present species extinctions but also those of the future; the impacts of climate change and human encroachment on species extinctions really depends on which species we’re looking at.”

 

Ice Age Extinctions Could Predict Modern Die-Offs

Earth’s two Snowball Earth events (, ) bookend the “.”  coincide with ice ages.
After a celebrated whaling incident in 1672, . By the 1730s, the American colonies had 60 whaling ships competing with European ships in eradicating the North Atlantic’s megafauna during the Golden Age of Whaling. could not be profitably slaughtered until the , so the sailing ships immortalized in scoured the world of its preindustrially gainful whales. Before 1800, the whales catchable by the day’s technology , and the fleets began sailing the Pacific and Indian oceans in search of whales.

Series of extinctions. Sea level changes and anoxia. Mountain-building and volcanism could have triggered ice age that caused it.
As previously stated, shale oil and tar sands have abysmally low EROIs, which are , but are presented today as some kind of magic answer to the USA's energy problems (in 2015, the oil price collapse was caused by the easy money policies of the central banks, and ). But, what does that mean, as far as what a person could witness in such a declining civilization? The impact of Canada's tar sands operations can provide a preview. Not only do Canada's tar sands operations (Source: Wikimedia Commons – google "tar sands Mordor" and view the image results):


28/10/2014 · Ice Age Extinctions Could Predict ..

In the end, is the most meaningful standard of living measure. Declining total available energy and declining EROI contribute to a declining energy surplus. Most people have some understanding of hunger, and if they have experienced blackouts, brownouts, or gas shortages, they have keenly felt the loss of energy. But the decline of industrial civilization has many other signs that comfortable Westerners can have difficulty grasping, and the following examples are intended to make it clearer.

Did climate cause the extinction of the Ice Age megafauna?

The idea of discretionary income is probably the financial economy's closest concept to , and the idea of savings is the financial economy's closest idea to stored energy. As the American middle class has been shrinking, discretionary income has been vanishing. That trend happened in history's richest and most powerful nation during the 40 years since energy consumption began declining. Global oil production peaked in 2006, and the rest of the world's nations will decline like the USA has, but from a far lower initial plateau. Those are the important measures, not financial ones. In a world of scarcity, the exchange function of economics assumes great importance at the social level, as people scrap for their piece of the scarce economic pie. But fighting over slices does not help grow the pie. In a world of abundance, money and financial concepts truly become meaningless.

Ice-Age Ecosystems and the Story of the Megafauna research for ..

The decline in real wages per hour and attendant rise in real prices for gasoline and homes is only a financial measure of the decline in energy resources and consumption. At the family budget level, as energy prices increase, all goods needing energy to produce such as gasoline, food, housing, medicine, and the like cost more. If they can even hold their marriages together (if they even get married anymore), both parents in American households work outside of their homes today, when only one did during the . As businesses try to remain competitive, wages are lower for those fortunate enough to keep their jobs, social goods such as education are prohibitively more expensive, and less money is available for anything beyond survival. For example, in the late 1970s and early 1980s I received a nearly free college education. In 2014, a college education comes with crippling debt as each student's "graduation present," unless the student has parents from the affluent class.