• Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. SE, 19: 1-66.
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  • Theory Of Sigmund Freud

It was this that led to the most controversial part of Freud’s work – his theory of and the .

Freud, S. (1920). Beyond the pleasure principle. SE, 18: 1-64.

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Freud, S. (1896). Further remarks on the neuro-psychoses of defence. SE, 3: 157-185.
Freud explored further, and it turned out that the woman's mother, who was a passionate astrologer and a Pisces, was on the patient's mind because she disapproved of her daughter being in analysis. It seems more plausible, as Freud suggested, that the fish represented the patient's mother rather than a penis!

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Fisher, S., & Greenberg, R. P. (1996). Freud scientifically reappraised: Testing the theories and therapy. John Wiley & Sons.
Secondary elaboration occurs when the unconscious mind strings together wish-fulfilling images in a logical order of events, further obscuring the latent content. According to Freud, this is why the manifest content of dreams can be in the form of believable events.


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Ferenczi, originally trained in the psychoanalytic model, at one point spoke out as a proponent of hugging, holding, kissing and non-erotic fondling of clients, believing that the use of such therapeutic touch would provide corrective parenting to clients with early injuries. Initially, Freud was supportive of his experiential experiments but withdrew his support when he became aware that Ferenczi had become sexually and romantically involved with more than one of his clients. Ferenczi refused to discontinue his use of touch and was subsequently expelled from the ranks of orthodox psychoanalysis (Fosshage, 2000).

The id, ego and super-ego are three distinct, yet interacting agents in the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche.
However, Freud was cautious about symbols and stated that general symbols are more personal rather than universal. A person cannot interpret what the manifest content of a dream symbolized without knowing about the person’s circumstances.

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In Freud’s later work on dreams, he explored the possibility of universal symbols in dreams. Some of these were sexual in nature, including poles, guns, and swords representing the penis and horse riding and dancing representing sexual intercourse.

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'Dream dictionaries', which are still popular now, were a source of irritation to Freud. In an amusing example of the limitations of universal symbols, one of Freud's patients, after dreaming about holding a wriggling fish, said to him 'that's a Freudian symbol - it must be a penis!'

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Displacement takes place when we transform the person or object we are really concerned about to someone else. For example, one of Freud’s patients was extremely resentful of his sister-in-law and used to refer to her as a dog, dreamed of strangling a small white dog. Freud interpreted this as representing his wish to kill his sister-in-law. If the patient would have really dreamed of killing his sister-in-law, he would have felt guilty. The unconscious mind transformed her into a dog to protect him.

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Freud distinguished between the manifest content of a dream (what the dreamer remembers) and the latent content, the symbolic meaning of the dream (i.e., the underlying wish). The manifest content is often based on the events of the day.

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Freud attracted many followers, who formed a famous group in 1902 called the "Psychological Wednesday Society." The group met every Wednesday in Freud's waiting room.