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  • The Enlightenment throughout Europe

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in French: le Siècle des Lumières, lit

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How European Enlightenment thought reached ..

Spanish Enlightenment literature is the literature of Spain written during the Age of Enlightenment
It is convenient to discuss religion in the Enlightenment bypresenting four characteristic forms of Enlightenment religion inturn: deism, religion of the heart, fideism and atheism.

The Age Of Reason, The Enlightenment And Deism

Romanticism arose as an implicit and explicit criticism of 18th century Enlightenment thought
Despite Descartes’ grounding of all scientific knowledge inmetaphysical knowledge of God, his system contributes significantly tothe advance of natural science in the period. He attacks thelong-standing assumptions of the scholastic-aristotelians whoseintellectual dominance stood in the way of the development of the newscience; he developed a conception of matter that enabled mechanicalexplanation of physical phenomena; and he developed some of thefundamental mathematical resources – in particular, a way toemploy algebraic equations to solve geometrical problems – thatenabled the physical domain to be explained with precise, simplemathematical formulae. Furthermore, his grounding of physics, and allknowledge, in a relatively simple and elegant rationalist metaphysicsprovides a model of a rigorous and complete secular system ofknowledge. Though major Enlightenment thinkers (for example Voltairein his Letters on the English Nation, 1734) embraceNewton’s physical system in preference to Descartes’,Newton’s system itself depends on Descartes’ earlier work,a dependence to which Newton himself attests.


About "The European Enlightenment"

Famous People of the Enlightenment | Biography Online
The old way of life was represented by superstition, an angry God, and absolute submission to authority. The thinkers of the Age of Reason ushered in a new way of thinking. This new way championed the accomplishments of humankind. Individuals did not have to accept despair. Science and reason could bring happiness and progress. Kings did not rule by divine right. They had an obligation to their subjects. Europeans pondered the implications for nearly a century. Americans put them into practice first.

The heart of the eighteenth century Enlightenment is the looselyorganized activity of prominent French thinkers of the mid-decades ofthe eighteenth century, the so-called“philosophes”(e.g., Voltaire, D’Alembert,Diderot, Montesquieu). The philosophes constituted aninformal society of men of letters who collaborated on a looselydefined project of Enlightenment exemplified by the project of theEncyclopedia (see below 1.5). However, there are noteworthycenters of Enlightenment outside of France as well. There is arenowned Scottish Enlightenment (key figures are Frances Hutcheson,Adam Smith, David Hume, Thomas Reid), a German Enlightenment (dieAufklärung, key figures of which include Christian Wolff,Moses Mendelssohn, G.E. Lessing and Immanuel Kant), and there are alsoother hubs of Enlightenment and Enlightenment thinkers scatteredthroughout Europe and America in the eighteenth century.

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It was a priest, Benito Feijóo y Montenegro, who did as much as any man to prepare for the Spanish Enlightenment, preaching the criterion of social utility in a society still obsessed with honour and display.

18 Key Thinkers of the Enlightenment - ThoughtCo

The Enlightenment is often associated with its political revolutionsand ideals, especially the French Revolution of 1789. The energycreated and expressed by the intellectual foment of Enlightenmentthinkers contributes to the growing wave of social unrest in France inthe eighteenth century. The social unrest comes to a head in theviolent political upheaval which sweeps away the traditionally andhierarchically structured ancien régime (the monarchy,the privileges of the nobility, the political power of the CatholicChurch). The French revolutionaries meant to establish in place of theancien régime a new reason-based order instituting theEnlightenment ideals of liberty and equality. Though theEnlightenment, as a diverse intellectual and social movement, has nodefinite end, the devolution of the French Revolution into the Terrorin the 1790s, corresponding, as it roughly does, with the end of theeighteenth century and the rise of opposed movements, such asRomanticism, can serve as a convenient marker of the end of theEnlightenment, conceived as an historical period.

Teaching the European Enlightenment with a Student …

In university courses on philosophy and history, they refer to the Age of Reason, the Age of Enlightenment and the philosophy of Deism. The Age of Reason covers the 1600’s and 1700’s A.D. and the Age of Enlightenment relates to the 1700’s and possibly early 1800’s. There is some overlapping in time and ideas among these two eras. But there also are distinctions between them. Deism was a religious philosophy closely associated with both the Age of Reason and the Enlightenment.

Germany in the Age of Enlightenment - a summary

This entry describes the main tendencies of Enlightenment thought inthe following main sections: (1) The True: Science, Epistemology, andMetaphysics in the Enlightenment; (2) The Good: Political Theory,Ethical Theory and Religion in the Enlightenment; (3) The Beautiful:Aesthetics in the Enlightenment.