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  • The Effects of Creatine: More Than Just Muscle Energy
  • Risks and Benefits of Creatine Monohydrate

Effects of acutecreatine monohydrate supplementation on leucine kinetics and mixed-muscle proteinsynthesis.

Side effects of creatine: Why do creatine supplements …

The effects of Creatine Monohydrate on muscle mass

Learn about the potential benefits and side effects of creatine, and how it could affect you.
As we have highlighted above, creatine has many benefits for all types of sports, and much of these beneficial effects have been confirmed in clinical studies. Now we'll discuss some specifics about creatine and its use in bodybuilding and weight training. There's probably no other sport than bodybuilding and weight lifting where creatine plays such a prominent role in sports nutrition and supplementation. Because bodybuilding involves performing short bouts of repeated high intensity exercises to stimulate muscle growth, creatine's ability to resynthesize ATP really becomes a major contributor to maintaining maximal muscle contraction and allowing the user to maintain the maximum power output for just a several extra seconds allowing them to perform one or two extra repetitions using the same weight, or same number of reps with a slightly heavier weight.

12 Possible Side Effects of Creatine Supplements

Scientific studies behind the effects and benefits of creatine monohydrate.
1. Int J Sports Med. 1997 Jul;18(5):369-72.
Effect of oral creatine supplementation on jumping and running performance.
Bosco C, Tihanyi J, Pucspk J, Kovacs I, Gabossy A, Colli R, Pulvirenti G, Tranquilli C, Foti C, Viru M, Viru A.


Creatine » Creatine Side Effects - Creatine Monohydrate

2. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003 Jun;13(2):173-83.
Effect of creatine supplementation on aerobic performance and anaerobic capacity in elite rowers in the course of endurance training.
Chwalbiñska-Moneta J.

Not only does creatine allow you to train harder, it also enhances muscle fibre growth in response to the strength training. A Denmark study with 32 male subjects studied the effects of creatine on satellite cells and myonuclei in skeletal muscle. The subjects were given either a placebo, creatine, or protein. Muscle biopsies and satellite cells were taken a 0, 4, and 8 weeks. The researchers found the creatine group had significantly greater increase in satellite cells at week 4 and week 8 compared to other groups. This study results have shown that creatine amplified training-induced increase in satellite cells and it also helps to enhance muscle fibre growth in response to strength training.

Creatine Supplements: Usage and Side Effects - WebMD

Much of these performance improvements can be attributed to creatine's ability to resynthesize ATP, thus increasing the overall amount of ATP available. Studies have confirmed that supplementing 20g of creatine monohydrate for 5 days results in increased total muscle creatine, and at the same time reduces the loss of ATP by 30.7%. Studies have also found that phosphocreatine increases in both type I and type II fibers, and the increase in available phosphocreatine in type I and II fibers leads to increase in ATP resynthesis enhancing performance.

Is Creatine Safe, and Does it Have Side Effects? - Healthline

The effects of creatine monohydrate on muscular performance was examined in a Pennsylvania State University study. 14 male subjects were given either 25g of creatine or a placebo. The subjects performed bench press (5 sets to failure) and a jump squat exercise. The creatine supplement group experienced significant improvement in peak power output in jump squats and increase in repetitions in bench press. The creatine group also had a 1.4kg increase in body mass. However, it is worth noting that the increase in body mass is probably not all pure muscle mass, but rather, a portion of that weight gain is a result from water retention - one of the effects of creatine. Creatine supplementation results in increase in total body weight, and also increase in body water content, and part of the weight gain from creatine supplements is due to water retention.

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Previous studies conducting personal interviews with male/female athletes who have used creatine for longer than 1 year did not reveal any long-term side effects of creatine. However, one short term side effect of creatine noted is that athletes who took more than the recommended amount of creatine experienced diarrhea, however this went away after reducing the dosage.

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Long term use of creatine has not shown any adverse side effect on humans. I have used it on and off for many years, and have never encountered any negative effects. As well, no studies have shown creatine to have any adverse side effects on humans.