• September 2014
  • Childhood obesity legislation enacted in 2013

Other key findings from The State of Obesity include:

Three out of 10 youth ages 10 to 17 are overweight or obese

Selected items from TFAH's Resource Library:
Potassium is found in body fluids andis essential for water and electrolyte balance and for the properfunctioning of cells, including nerves. It is present in almost allfoods but fruit (e.g. dried fruits, bananas, berryfruits), vegetables and milk are rich sources. Processed foodstypically contain less than raw foods. Potassium has a beneficial bloodpressure-lowering effect in people with raised blood pressure.

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Calcium intake is important inachieving peak bone mass in early life but there are many factors thatinfluence the rate of age-related bone loss as we get older. There issome evidence that calcium supplementation may have a small benefit inwomen after the menopause. Even so, it is sensible to ensure thatcalcium intakes are adequate at this time. In older women, the evidencefor benefits of supplementation with calcium and vitamin D is stronger,and an adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, combined with physicalactivity, seems to reduce fracture risk. Adequate calciumintake may also be important in other disease processes, with evidencesuggesting a role for the mineral in the prevention of high bloodpressure, obesity and bowel cancer; all the subject of active research.


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Manganese is required for bone formation and for energymetabolism. It is also a constituent of an antioxidant enzyme. It ispresent in plant foods such as vegetables, cereals and nuts. Tea isalso a rich source.

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Iodine is used to make thyroid hormones. The thyroid hormones controlmany metabolic processes and if there is insufficient iodine in thediet, the result is lethargy and swelling of the thyroid gland in theneck to form a goitre. . Infants born ofseverely iodine deficient mothers may be mentally retarded (cretinism).Nowadays iodine deficiency is very rare in the UK.

Fat has many important functions as anutrient:

Zinc is present in many enzymes and is essential for cell division and,therefore, for growth and tissue repair, etc. In some countries,delayed puberty and small stature have been linked to zinc deficiency,though it is not certain that this is due to zinc alone. Zinc ispresent in many foods and is most readily absorbed from meat, whichprovides about a third of zinc in the UK. For cereals and pulses,zinc’s availability is limited by phytates.

Childhood Obesity Legislation - 2013 Update of Policy …

Most raw foods contain very smallamounts of sodium chloride (salt). But salt is often added during theprocessing, preparation, preservation and serving of foods.

Childhood Obesity – 2009 of Legislative Policy Options ..

The amount of iodine in plant foodssuch as vegetables and cereal grains is determined by the iodine levelof the environment, i.e. the amount in the soilor water. The only rich sources of iodine are sea-foods, but in somecountries certain foods, e.g. salt and bread, arefortified with iodine. In the UK, dairy products are an importantsource of iodine. Data indicates that 12% (1 in 8) young women haveintakes below recommendation. This may be associated with low intakesof milk and milk products.

Obesity | Definition of Obesity by Merriam-Webster

Excess sweating, e.g.due to exercise in a hot environment, may cause some sodium depletion;sodium intakes may need to increase modestly and temporarily toreplenish the loss in sweat.