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The purpose of this chapter is to survey common transgenes used in modern neuroscience research and to describe how these genes can be restricted to specific ce

Papaya was genetically modified to resist the ringspot virus

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Transgenic animals are often used for researching the purposes of unknown genes.
Should I be concerned about the genetic background of my mutant mice?
Genetic background can have a significant effect on mutant phenotype. For many mutants, you will want to have your mutation on a well characterized, robust, common inbred strain like C57Bl/6. A mutation typically is crossed onto the C57Bl/6 background for 10 generations, at which point it is considered congenic since the genome is expected to be 99.8% C57Bl/6. (Detailed information on the expected content of the genome at each backcross generation is available in Lee Silver's book, available online at The Jackson Laboratory). The mutation can be continued to be crossed to the inbred strain after this point. Mutants maintained by breeding among themselves can result in the fixation of new mutations within the strain, and so should be avoided. Throughout the breeding, knockout or transgenic strains genotyped by PCR should occasionally be verified by Southern blotting, since the vagaries of PCR have caused more than one lab to lose a mutant. Transgenic strains often lose expression of the transgene irreversibly through methylation of the insertion site, so it is wise to check transgenic lines for expression at each generation. Cryopreserve your strain, if it is not one of the common, commercially available strains. Cryopreservation is available from local ( and commercial services (; ). In some instances, the greater robustness and reproduction of an outbred strain like CD1 (from ) is a sufficient advantage to offset the heterogeneity of the background, say, for example, in studies of embryogenesis.

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31/07/2008 · Background Transgenic animals are widely used in biomedical research and biotechnology
If a PI would like the support of the TCF for making KOs, the cost is $100,000 and is added to the budget of the grant proposal. The cost is to cover consumable supplies for making the mice, animals and part of the salary cost. This arrangements is very cost effective considering the separate cost in terms of time and expertise that would be involved if the PI were to recruit and have trained, a separate researcher to perform the technically challenging task of producing knockouts. Apart from the generation of the mice, Prof. Cheah and the TCF team also provide help with designing the transgenic or targeting vectors, provision of reagents. The TCF also provides other services such as embryo rederivation, cryopreservation, in vitro fertilization. Interested PIs may contact for information.


Assessing the effects of the 129/Sv genetic background …

World Animal Net is the “world’s largest network of animal protection societies.” Use their directory to find out about campaigns, petitions, and groups in your country that support the welfare of transgenic and other research animals.

The PIs supported by the TCF past and present are from the Departments of Anatomy, Biochemistry, Medicine, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Orthopedics & Traumatology, Paediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, Pathology, Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Surgery, Zoology and Centre for Reproduction, Development and Growth. The TCF has now supported the transgenic/knockout aspects for 30 RGC-funded projects, three RGC Group Research projects, the AoE programme, the AOSpine programme, and the Theme-based Research Scheme.

Transgenic Organisms – A Brief Background

The transgenic core facility (TCF) was established under the support of the Research Grants Council between 1999 and 2006. It is currently supported by University Grants Council AoE programme "Developmental Genomics & Skeletal Research".

According to the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving ..

b) nutritional supplements and pharmaceuticals
Products such as insulin, growth hormone, and blood anti-clotting factors may soon be or have already been obtained from the milk of transgenic cows, sheep, or goats.3,12,23 Research is also underway to manufacture milk through transgenesis for treatment of debilitating diseases such as phenylketonuria (PKU), hereditary emphysema, and cystic fibrosis.3,13,23,25

The Plant Genome - Original Research An Assessment …

This unit, from the European Initiative for Biotechnology Education, helps students to consider some of the issues surrounding the uses of transgenic animals. Includes background, role-play, debates, and activities about Tracey, a sheep that produces medicinal milk. Click on “transgenic animals” unit in left margin of home page.

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a) xenotransplantation
Patients die every year for lack of a replacement heart, liver, or kidney. For example, about 5,000 organs are needed each year in the United Kingdom alone.25 Transgenic pigs may provide the transplant organs needed to alleviate the shortfall.9 Currently, xenotransplantation is hampered by a pig protein that can cause donor rejection but research is underway to remove the pig protein and replace it with a human protein.25