• The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
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Various sources gave conflicting information about when the last leaflets were dropped on Hiroshima prior to the atomic bomb.

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These were on a considerable scale, but far behind.

The bomb was dropped from an American B-29 Superfortress, known as Enola Gay, at 0815 local time.
Due to the hilly geography of Nagasaki and the bombing focus being away from the city centre, the excessive damage from the bombing was limited to the Urakami Valley and part of downtown Nagasaki. The centre of Nagasaki, the harbour, and the historic district were shielded from the blast by the hills around the Urakami River.

I realized that they were talking about research on the atomic bomb.

The plane's crew say they saw a column of smoke rising and intense fires springing up.
Truman’s announcement to Stalin can be seen here from the accounts of the various observers. Each describes the same event, but the event appears in a different light to each observer. Did the “master politicians” Truman, Churchill, and Byrnes know what they were doing? Or did they make a tragic blunder?


More than 60% of the buildings in the city were destroyed.

Aren't the people who disagree with those actions just trying to find fault with America?
Cousins writes of his conversations with MacArthur, "MacArthur's views about the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were starkly different from what the general public supposed." He continues, "When I asked General MacArthur about the decision to drop the bomb, I was surprised to learn he had not even been consulted.

The war might have ended weeks earlier, he said, if the United States had agreed, as it later did anyway, to the retention of the institution of the emperor."Norman Cousins, , pg.

Many have also suffered long-term sickness and disability.

Had the General's advice been followed, the resort to atomic weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki might have been unnecessary."William Manchester, , pg.

Nearly 74,000 were killed and a similar number injured.

of War during WWII), Grew responded to the defense of the atomic bombings Stimson had made in a February 1947 magazine article:"...in the light of available evidence I myself and others felt that if such a categorical statement about the [retention of the] dynasty had been issued in May, 1945, the surrender-minded elements in the [Japanese] Government might well have been afforded by such a statement a valid reason and the necessary strength to come to an early clearcut decision.

Japan surrendered to the Allies on 14 August 1945.

"If surrender could have been brought about in May, 1945, or even in June or July, before the entrance of Soviet Russia into the [Pacific] war and the use of the atomic bomb, the world would have been the gainer."Grew quoted in Barton Bernstein, ed.,, pg.

In early May of 1946 Hoover met with General Douglas MacArthur.

He knew that the Japanese would never renounce their emperor, and that without him an orderly transition to peace would be impossible anyhow, because his people would never submit to Allied occupation unless he ordered it.

What, I asked, would his advice have been?

of War)"I have always felt that if, in our ultimatum to the Japanese government issued from Potsdam [in July 1945], we had referred to the retention of the emperor as a constitutional monarch and had made some reference to the reasonable accessibility of raw materials to the future Japanese government, it would have been accepted.