• A Formal Analysis of the Sleeping Hermaphrodite
  • A Formal Analysis of the Sleeping Hermaphrodite ..
  • The Sleeping Hermaphrodite Essay Examples | Kibin

Eppinger H, Rothenberger CJ. 1909. Zur analyse des elektrokardiograms [For analysis of the electrocardiogram]. 22: 1091-98

A Formal Analysis of the Sleeping Hermaphrodite | Kibin

A Formal Analysis of the Sleeping Hermaphrodite » …

The artist and date of the famous work entitled Sleeping Hermaphrodite are both unknown
Ronald Aylmer Fisher (GB-AU) mathematically analyzed data on human stature and other measurements and concluded that inheritance is better explained as particulate rather than blending. He was the first to point out that for natural selection to work inheritance had to be and not blending. Polymorphic traits had been widely viewed as a result of blending. In the 1930 reference he defined the true cost of making a child as being measured in lost opportunities to make other children. This opportunity cost he named (, ).

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Alexander Forbes (US) and Alan Gregg (US) made a systematic analysis of nerve impulses originating from the central nervous system and compared them with those evoked by artificial stimulation of a peripheral nerve. Their conclusion was that nerve impulses are always of the same nature regardless of their origin ().


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Janet Elizabeth Lane-Claydon (GB) published a groundbreaking study of two cohorts (groups) of babies, fed cow's milk and breast milk respectively. Lane-Claypon found that those babies fed breast milk gained more weight, and she used statistical methods to show that the difference was unlikely to occur by chance alone. She also investigated whether something other than the type of milk could account for the difference, an effect known as "confounding" (). This study may have been the first epidemiologic implementation of a retrospective (historical) cohort study, the first modern description of "confounding" with an accompanying analysis, and the first use of Student’s t test to assess the difference of means in small samples. Lane-Claydon credits Major Greenwood for his help in the statistical analysis of her data.

Siegfried Ruhemann (GB) produced triketohydrindene hydrate (ninhydrin) then discovered its reaction with amines to form the colored reaction product known as Ruhemann's purple (). The reaction of amines, amino acids, peptides and related compounds with ninhydrin has found extensive use in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of such compounds in chemistry and biochemistry.

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Harvey Williams Cushing (US) was the greatest neurosurgeon of the twentieth century and the first to devote himself entirely to surgery of the brain. He authored . His contributions to neurosurgery were numerous, among which was his analysis of the function of the human brain by stimulating motor and sensory areas while patients were under local anesthesia. These studies provided for the first time direct evidence that irritation of the post-central gyrus gives rise to sensations like those that precede epileptic attacks. He distinguished between excess function of the anterior lobe of the pituitary (as in gigantism and acromegaly) and deficiency of its function (as in dwarfism and Frohlich's asexual adiposity) (, , ).

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Ehrlich and his colleagues had discovered that the dye trypan red killed the trypanosome, which causes sleeping sickness. Ehrlich kept looking for something better. He decided that the nitrogen atom combinations it contains cause the action of trypan red. Arsenic atoms resemble nitrogen atoms in chemical properties and, in general, introduce a more poisonous quality into compounds. By 1907 he and Sahachiro Hata (JP-DE) had synthesized 606 different compounds. Number 606, dihydroxydiamino-arsenobenzene hydrochloride, did not work very well against trypanosomes but later an assistant (H. Sachs) tested it against syphilis and found it to be deadly. It was called or , the latter being the name under which it was marketed. Today it is called . Ehrlich knew that dyes often exhibit exquisite specificity and reasoned that it might be possible to create a chemical which was very specific and toxic for a parasite and yet harmless to its host. He often referred to these chemicals as . Ehrlich’s success represents the beginning of (a word he coined) as a laboratory science (, , ).

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Of course, staining of the dead organs and tissues has for a long time been one of the most important tools of histological research. But staining of this kind can only give information concerning purely the anatomical structure of the tissues. If, however, one wishes to acquire an understanding of the properties and functions of the living cell, then the staining reaction must be made to take place in the body itself, i.e., one must stain the living substance. In this way one can gain an insight into the relationship between the individual tissues and certain dyestuffs. I have denominated this affinity of the stains and other foreign substances by adjectives with the ending , and, for example, describe a dye which stains only a single specific tissue as , and speak thus of and substances, etc., while substances which have the capacity to stain several tissues should be called . In 1866, in my early study “ On the methylene-blue reaction of the living nerve-tissue,” I had already indicated the lines along which a further analysis of the process should proceed. Two questions had first of all to be answered: